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B Adjoining Double "B" - Jewelry trademark for Baskin Bros., Mobile Ala. since 1949
B Within ornate frae - Jewelry trademark for Joseph Bobley Jewelry, New York since 1955
B Within a star - Jewelry trademark for B. A. Ballou & Co., Providence RI since 1947
B Jewelry trademark for H.F. Barrows co., North Attleboro, MA since 1901
B Script "B" or "Bow B" Jewelry trademark for Beaucraft, Inc., Providence RI jewelry mfg since 1961
B Within a Diamond - Jewelry trademark for Mark of Brooks and Co., New York since 1962
B Large ribbon Script "B" - Jewelry trademark for Federated Dept. Stores, NY since 1939
B Within modified arrow shape - Jewelry trademark of M Fabrikant & Sons New York since `1962
B On Mexican Sterling - used by Bernice Goodspeed (1935 - 1971) She and her husband had a small shop and designed in the Pre Columbian style.
BAR Letters "AR" Within the "B" - Trademark of Bar-Tan Mfg Providence RI since 1965
BF Jewelry traemark for B. F. Hirsch, NY since 1935
BAB Jewelry trademark of B.A. Ballou & Co. Providence RI 1908-1949
BB Co Jewelry trademark of Bliss Bros co. Attleboro MA since 1908
BB "Inside upsidedown "V" " Jewelry trademark of Barnabus Barna, Beverly Hills CA since 1962
BB Double B's with interlocking circles - Jewelry trademark for Binder Bros, NY since 1920
BB Within a Triangle - Jewelry trademark for Berman Bros, Pittsburg PA since 1962
BBC Within an oval - Jewelry trademark for Bernard Blum Corp., NY since 1963
B&C Jewelry trademark for B&C Mfg. New York, Mfg. of clasps, findings since 1962
B Co. Large "B" Small Co - Jewelry trademark for Benjamin & co., NY since 1962
BC Jewelry trademark for Baronet Creations, NY since 1962

BCJ     *BEVERLY CREATIVE JEWELERS, LOS ANGELES CA., JEWELRY TRADEMARK SINCE 1962


BAACK,     *HAMBURG, BERLIN, GERMANY METALWORKER/JEWELRY DESIGNER C.1895 SIEGMUND

BABETTE LINE        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR W&R JEWELRY, ATTLEBORO, MA SINCE 1944

BABETTO, GIAMPAOLO  *ARTIST/JEWELLERY DESIGNER BORN IN PADUA, ITALY IN 1947.

BABISHE    *(BABEESH) THONG, CORD OF THREAD MADE OF RAWHIDE. AMERICAN INDIAN

BABANI                  *PERFUMERY.PARIS, FRANCE; C.1925; "YASMAK", "ABDULLA"

BABCOCK             *PERFUMERY.NY NY; C. 1920 ; "ACME", "WE MODERNS"

BABLET,PAUL     *FRENCH JEWELER/DESIGNER C.1889 - ?

BABS         * PERFUMERY.NY, NY, C. 1940; "BLOSSOMSCENT", "YESTERYEAR" CREATORS

BABY DARLING *JEWELRY TRADEMARK (CHILDRENS) USED BY LIPPMAN, SPIER & HAHN, NEW YORK SINCE  1925.

BABYFAIR     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY E.M. ROSENTHAL JEWELRY, CO., WASHINGTON, DC FOR
  CHILDREN'S JEWELRY SINCE 1940

BACCARAT * PRODUCER OF FINE GLASS AVIDLY SOUGHT BY COLLECTORS.  THE CRISTALLERIES DE
                       BACCARAT WAS FOUNDED IN 1822 IN FRANCE AND CONTINUES TO PRODUCE THE
    HIGHEST QUALITY GLASSWARE INCLUDING PERFUME BOTTLES, TODAY. THEY MADE
    PERFUME  BOTTLES FOR ELIZABETH ARDEN, ARYS, ATKINSON, BOUJOIS, BICHARA,
    CORDAY, COTY, DELETTREZ, D'ORSAY, CARON, FONTANIS, GABILLA, GRENOVILLE,
                              GUERLAIN, RICHARD, JACKEL, T. JONES, LENTHERIC, MOLINARD, MYON, ORIZA, L.,
                               LEGRAND, JEAN PATOU, RAMSES, ROGER AND GALLET, RIMMEL, SILKA, SCHIAPARELLI,
                               VIOLET, VOLNAY, YBRY, YARDLEY AND HOUBIGANT.

BACHELOR  *TRADEMARK FOR STUART A. THOMPKINS/BACHELOR BUTTON PRODUCTS FOR MENS
 BUTTON   ITEMS SINCE 1952

BADGE  *INSIGNIA OF MEMBERSHIP OR OFFICE USED SINCE THE  17TH CENTURY IN SEVERAL
   DIFFERENT FORMS-SOME   PINNED ON AND SOME SUSPENDED FROM A CHAIN.

BAER, WILDE *ATTLEBORO, MA. MFG. OF BUTTONS,  TIE PINS AND RELATED ITEMS. C.1915-1931

BAGATELLE    *(BAG A TELL) TRIFLE; SOMETHING OF NO IMPORTANCE.

BAGUETTE      *A GEM OR STONE USUALLY SMALL, CUT IN THE SHAPE OF A  RECTANGLE. OFTEN USED TO
   SET OFF OTHER LARGER   STONES. EXPENSIVE CUT LARGE. MADE POPULAR  IN THE
   CUBISM INTEREST OF THE 1920'S.
 *FRENCH FOR "ROD"

BAGS * SEE PURSES

BAHRS, ULRIKE *JEWELLERY DESIGNER BORN 1944 IN GREVESMUHLEN, GDR.
 

BAIL * A WIRE TRIANGLE TO ATTACH A PENDANT TO A LOOP OR CHAIN.

BAILEY, BANKS *JEWELRY DESIGNERS/MFG. PHILADELPHIA, PA. 1832-PRESENT. BEGAN AS BAILEY & KITCHEN C.
   &BIDDLE  1832 IN PHILADELPHIA. NOW A MEMBER OF THE  ZALE CORP.. ALSO  USE  B B & B AS TRADEMARK.
  KNOWN FOR QUALITY AND EXCLUSIVE DESIGNS.

BAKELAND *TRADEMARK USED BY ARSENE J. VAN EXEM, NEW YORK FOR JEWELRY MADE WITH
   PEARLS AND RHINESTONES SINCE 1922.


BAKELITE *  SYNTHETIC RESON CHEMICALLY FORMULATED AND NAMED AFTER BELGIAN
   (BAY KA LITE)         CHEMIST L. H. BAEKELAND IN 1909.  IT WAS USED FOR MOLDING ITEMS  WHICH WERE
     PREVIOUSLY DONE OF  CELLULOID OR HARD RUBBER .   BAKELITE IS VERY
     COLLECTIBLE IN ALL OF ITS FORMS - MOST POPULARLY  JEWELRY, BUTTONS, RADIO
                                CASES, ETC.  BAKELITE HAS BECOME TO BE  USED AS A GENERIC TERM MEANING
                                    ANY TYPE OF EARLY THERMO  PLASTIC BUT IS NOT ACTUALLY BAKELITE UNLESS
                                    SIGNED.  TO DETERMINE AN ACTUAL PIECE OF BAKELITE, RUB YOU FINGERS ACROSS IT,
                                    WARMING IT  AND FAMILIARIZE YOURSELF  WITH THE ODOR OR ANOTHER
     NONDESTRUCTIVE WAY TO   TEST BAKELITE IS BY IMMERSING THE PIECE IN
                                    HOT WATER (NOT WITH RHINESTONES,  PLEASE). THE SMELL SHOULD BE ACRID I.E.
     FORMALDEHYDE OR  CARBOLIC ACID)  BAKELITE  ALSO HAS A CLUNKY SOUND ,UNLIKE
     THE LIGHTER CELLULOID, WHEN KNOCKING TWO PIECES TOGETHER.  HOWEVER, THE
                                    BEST DETERMINATION   IS EXPERIENCE AND SOMETIMES  EVEN THE MOST
       EXPERIENCED IS   FOOLED.  IF NECESSARY YOU CAN DO THE "HOT NEEDLE" TEST IN
                                    AN  OUT OF SIGHT   PLACE. HEAT THE NEEDLE AND THEN PRICK THE PIECE
                                    I MMEDIATELY SNIFFING THE    ODOR.  (NOT A BIG HOLE!)  ALSO BE AWARE THAT NON
                                   THERMOPLASTIC PIECES WILL MELT, THERMOSET WILL NOT. BAKELITE IS ALSO BEING
     REPRODUCED BUT OBVIOUS GIVEAWAYS  ARE COLORS AND  SHAPES
                                   CHARACTERISTIC SOLID COLORS INCLUDE LIGHT YELLOW,   DARK YELLOW,
    BUTTERSCOTCH, PEA  GREEN, DEEP GREEN, GRASS GREEN, LIME GREEN,  BLACK,
                                   BROWN, MAROON, DEEP MAROON, RED,  ORANGE, NAVY AND DEEP NAVY BLUE.  THE
    MARBELIZED COLORS INCLUDE GREENS, GOLDS, TORTOISE,  BLUE GREEN, ROSE,
    PLUM, PEACH AND LOTS OF YELLOW SHADES. THERE ARE SOME CLEAR OR
                                   "VASELINE"  PIECES. SEVERAL WONDERFUL BOOKS ARE AVAILABLE THAT DISCUSS
                                   THE PLASTIC  CRAZE.  NEW BAKELITE IS BEING MADE. PIECES ARE BEING MELTED DOWN
    AND REMOLDED INTO OLD AND NEW DESIGNS SO STUDY THE OLDER PIECES WELL.


BAKER, OLIVER    *ENGLISH JEWELRY DESIGNER/CRAFTSMAN C.1900

BAKKER, GIJS * JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1942 IN AMERSFOORT, HOLLAND

BALAS RUBY        *NOT A RUBY AT ALL BUT A RED SPINEL IN JEWELRY.

BALFOUR, L.G.      *JEWELRY MFG., ATTLEBORO, MA. SINCE 1936 USED THE "B" MARK WITHIN A MODIFIED
      SHIELD SHAPE. SPECIALIZING IN FRATERNAL/INSIGNIA JEWELRY.

BALENCIAGA        * PERFUMERY.PARIS, FRANCE C.1944; "28", "QUADRILLE", "PRELUDE"

BALENCIAGA, CRISTOBAL * SPANISH FASHION DESIGNER BORN IN 1895. HIS FASHION HOUSE CLOSED IN 1968.
            HE WAS ADMIRED FOR HIS PASSEMENTERIE, AND SPANISH LACES AND FOR HIS
            LAVISH USE OF COLOR COMBINATIONS.

BALIE                          *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MORRIS BALICER, NEW YORK FOR MENS JEWELRY
                                     SINCE 1922

BALL                      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MILDRED L. BALL, WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. SINCE 1959

BALL CHAIN           *TYPE OF CHAIN COMPOSED OF SMALL METAL BALLS   JOINED BY A METAL  CONNECTION.

BALLERINA            *NAME AND BALLERINA FIGURE WAS USED BY UNITED PEARL CORP. AS THEIR TRADE-
      MARK FOR PEARL JEWELRY SINCE 1954.

BALLESTEROS    *MEXICAN FAMILY OPERATED STERLING JEWELRY BUSINESS SINCE 1937 TO PRESENT.
     MOST PIECES ARE MARKED "BALLESTEROS".

BALLET JEWELS, INC.*JEWELRY MFG./DESIGN. CURRENTLY IN BUSINESS IN NY.

BALLOU               *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BETTER RHINESTONE JEWELRY CO., NEW YORK SINCE
     THE 1940-50'S. ALSO "B" INSIDE A STAR. AND INITIALS B.A.B.

BALLOU   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR B.A.BALLOU & CO., PROVIDENCE RI SINDE 1919 - 1949.

BALLY, BORIS *CONTEMPORARY STUDIO JEWELRY DESIGNER SPECIALIZING IN MACHINERY/ROBOTIC JEWELRY

BALMAIN             *PERFUMERY IN PARIS, FRANCE; C. 1950'S; "ELYSEES", "VENT VERT"
 PIERRE   *PARIS FASHION DESIGNER WITH COUTURE HOUSE OPENING IN 1945. HE WORKED FOR LUCIEN
    LELONG IN 1939 PRIOR TO OPENING HIS OWN HOUSE. HE DIED IN 1982 AND HIS ASSISTANT,
    ERIK MORTENSEN ASSUMED THE ROLE OF COUTURIER.

BALTIC   *IN JEWELRY - THE LOCATION FOR EARLY AMBER.

BAMBOO   *USED IN ORNAMENTATION. HOLLOW STALKS WERE MADE INTO CYLINDRICAL BEADS.

BAMBOO   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY AVON PRODUCTS, NEW YORK SINCE 1970
  MAGIC

BANAL               *TRITE, COMMONPLACE. OF NO INDIVIDUAL TASTE OR   INTEREST. FASHIONLESS.

BANDEAU           *TYPE OF HEAD ORNAMENT IN FORM OF NARROW BAND  ENCIRCLING THE FOREHEAD
  (BAN DOE)         NARROW  BRASSIERE OR BRA. ALSO NARROW BAND ENCIRCLING THE HEAD AS A
                WREATH   OF FLOWERS, ETC.  ALSO BANDELET  SUCH AS THOSE WORN BY MEDIEVAL
                             ITALIAN WOMEN AND ALSO IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND.

BANDED AGATE *STRIPED AGATE OF VARIOUS COLORS - BLACK, BROWN, WHITE SOMETIMES  USED IN
                                     VICTORIAN HARDSTONE  CAMEOS AND BEADS.

BANGLE               *ROUND OR OVAL BRACELET, RIGID RATHER THAN FLEXIBLE SOMETIMES SLIPPED OVER
                                  THE HAND RATHER THAN CLASPED. POPULAR DURING THE VICTORIAN PERIOD.

BAPST                   *SEVERAL GENERATIONS OF PARISIAN JEWELLERS WHO WERE DESCENDED FROM
BAPST FAMILY      ANCESTORS FROM HALL, SWABIA IN SOUTHERN GERMANY. PROMINENT  FOR MAKING
                               COURT  JEWELRY AND PRODUCING ARTICLES MADE OF "STRASS". THEY SETTLED IN
                               PARIS WHERE THEY BECAME PROMINENT MAKING COURT JEWELRY.

BAPST & FALIZE *FRENCH JEWELRY/ORNAMENTATION DESIGNERS 1871-1892. USING "B & F" MARK.

BAR BROOCH     *TYPE OF BROOCH IN FORM OF HORIZONTAL BAR WITH DECORATION ALONG THE LENGTH
                                    USING VARIOUS GEMSTONES AND MOTIFS. SOMETIMES CALLED BAR "PINS".

BARBARA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY GEMEX CO., SINCE 1930

BARBARA LEE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ASSOCIATED MERCHANDISING, NEW YORK FOR FAUX
                               PEARL NECKLACES. SINCE 1939.

BARBARIC           *ITEMS MADE DURING THE DARK AGES FROM CIRCA AD 410 UNTIL AD 870 WHEN THE
                              BARBARIAN TRIBES (FRANKS, LOMBARDS, ANGLO-SAXONS, ETC.) WERE SWEEPING
                             WEST OVER EUROPE  AND BRINGING WITH THEM THE CULTURE OF THE ORIENT TO
                             INFLUENCE ROMAN ART.

BARBIE *TRADEMARK USED BY MATTEL, INC., HAWTHORNE, CA. FOR SETS OF JEWELRY FOR GIRLS
   IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE FAMOUS "BARBIE" DOLL.

BARCLAY *WITHIN A PALLET WITH WORDS "ART IN JEWELRY" - TRADEMARK FOR BARCLAY JEWELRY
   INC., PROVIDENCE, R.I. SINCE 1948.

BARCLAY, *JEWELRY MFG./DESIGNER 1930-1940. MCCLELLAND B ARCLAY, WELL KNOWN ILLUSTRATOR
  MCCLELLAND     DURING THE 1930'S ALSO PRODUCED JEWELRY WITH A DECIDEDLY DECO APPEAL. HE WAS
   KILLED IN ACTION DURING WWII.  HIS DESIGNS SOMETIMES FEATURED PAVE RHINESTONES
   WITH UNUSUAL SHAPED FOCUS STONES. ALWAYS ELEGANT AND WONDERFUL FINDS.

BARJON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR M.EDWARD POPE, ALTADENA, CA. SINCE 1961

BARLEYCORN        *TRACE CHAIN WHERE LINKS ARE SHAPED LIKE ISOSCELES TRIANGLE WITH THE APEX OF
    CHAIN                   ONE LINK LOOPED AROUND THE BASE OF THE ADJOINING LINK.

BARODA              *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR R.L.GRIFFITH & SON, PROVIDENCE, R. SINCE 1912.

BAROQUE  *DESIGN USED WITH HEAVY ORNAMENTATION AND CURVED LINES.

BARREL                  *SHAPE OF A TYPE OF BEAD AND ALSO A TYPE OF NECKLACE OR BRACELET FASTENER.

BARRETT              *HAIR CLASP. MADE AVAILABLE IN A WIDE VARIETY OF MATERIALS FROM PLASTIC TO
    CHASED SILVER AND GOLD. METALLIC B ARRETTS WERE POPULAR FROM   1895
    THROUGH THE 20'S  WHEN THE PLASTICS BECAME POPULAR. SOME WERE SET WITH
    RHINESTONES, GEMS,  PEARLS. THEY ENJOY MUCH POPULARITY TODAY.

BAROQUE             *FRENCH FOR "BIZARRE", OR FROM THE PORTUGUESE "BARROCO" WHICH MEANS
                               IRREGULAR.THIS PERIOD WAS A UNION OF ARCHETECTURE, PAINTING AND SCULPTURE
                               IN THE  17TH AND 18TH CENTURY AN CREATED AN OVERWHELMING AND DIRECT
                               APPEAL TO THE  SENSES OF THE BEHOLDER. A BLEND OF ILLUSION, LIGHT AND COLOR.
                               LARGE-SCALED   BOLD DETAILS,  SWEEPING CURVES AND A WEALTH OF
                               ORNAMENTATION.

BAROQUE             *NATURAL PEARL OF CULTURED PEARL OF IRREGULAR SHAPE FORMED BY THE PEARL
                               OYSTER PEAR  AROUND SOME IRREGULARLY SHAPED INTRUSION.

BAROQUES          *IN JEWELRY - GEMSTONES OR BEADS ESPECIALLY PEARLS OF IRREGULAR SHAPES.

BARTON, ANN     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BERTHA J. HAIG, BOSTON, MA. SINCE 1938

BARTON,NY        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR B.HAIG BOSTON, MASS. INCL. COMPACTS, ETC. SINCE
                             1938.

BARTOSIK, KAREL * BORN IN TAMWORTH, ENGLAND IN 1942, THIS DESIGNER WORKED WITH ANDREW GRIMA IN LONDON
                               AND DESIGNED THE WEDDING GIFT TO PRINCE OF WALES/LADY DIANA FROM THE ENGLISH CHAMBER
                               ORCHESTRA.

BAS-RELIEF        *SLIGHT RAISED PATTERN ON A FLAT SURFACE.

BASALT                  *DARK GREY TO BLACK VOLCANIC ROCK USED IN EGYPTIAN JEWELRY AND IMITATED
                                 BY JOSIAH WEDGWOOD IN HIS PORTRAIT MEDALLIONS.

BASSE TAILLE     *(FRENCH) LITERALLY - SHALLOW CUT. TECHNIQUE OF DECORATION BY ENAMELLING ON
    A METAL  BASE WHERE THE DESIGN WAS FIRST MADE IN SEVERAL LEVELS BY
    CHASING, CARVING ENGRAVING OR STAMPING OR ENGINE TURNING AND THEN
    COVERING THE SURFACE WITH TRANSPARENT OR TRANSLUCENT ENAMEL AND THEN
     FIRED.

BASSO RELIEVO  *LOW RELIEF CARVING

BASTARD        *VARIETY OF AMBER THAT HAS CLOUDY APPEARANCE DUE TO MANY EMBEDDED AIR
   AMBER       BUBBLES.

BATAL, REBECCA  *CONTEMPORARY STUDIO JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST WITH FLOWING, SURREAL DESIGNS.

BATEAU NECK       * (BA TOE) BOATWHAPE NECKLINE HIGH IN FRONT AND BACK/POINTED AT SHOULDERS.

BATES & BACON   *JEWELRY MFG., ATTLEBORO, MASS., C.1900-1930'S. MFG. FOBS, LOCKETS, CHAINS, ETC.

BATIK               *DECORATION TECHNIQUE THAT USESE WAX-RESIST AND DYE

BATISTE   *(BA TEEST) SOFT SHEER COTTON OR LINEN FABRIC OF PLAIN WEAVE USUALLY IN
                                  DELICATE  COLORS USED FOR HANDKERCHIEFS, LINGERIE, NECKWEAR, ETC.

BATTENBERG          *COARSE FORM OR RENAISSANCE LACE.
        LACE

BATTERSEA   *ENAMELED COPPER ARTICLES MADE AT YORK HOUSE IN THE BATTERSEA DISTRICT OF
    ENAMEL            LONDON. SMALL PERSONAL ARTICLES SUCH AS SNUFF BOXES, PATCH BOXES AND
     WATCH  CASES. CIRCA 1753-6. THESE ITEMS ARE STILL PRODUCED BY VARIOUS
     COMPANIES AND ALL  ARE COLLECTIBLE AND USUALLY BRING HIGH PRICES.

BAUBLE              *REFERS TO ANY DANGLING ORNAMENTATION.

BAUER *TRADEMARK FOR "A PIECE OF THE RAINBOW" CONTEMPORARY JEWELRY DESIGN CO. FOUNDED
  BY DOROTHY BAUER. DESIGNS ARE QUALITY AND WHIMSICAL.

BAUER, FRANK *BORN IN 1942 IN HANOVER, GERMANY FRG THIS JEWELRY DESIGNER OPENED A WORKSHOP IN
                                 SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.

BAUXITE                  *A SOFT RED ALUMINUM ORE THAT IS USED FOR THE MAKING OF BEADS, DISCS, ETC.            FROM   NIGERIA.

BAVARIAN LACE    *SIMPLE BOBBIN LACE. ALSO SEE TORCHON OR LACES.

BAYEUX                      *FRENCH ROMANESQUE EMBROIDERED TAPESTRY COMMEMORATING THE VICTORY OF
 THE TAPESTRY           NORMANS IN ENGLAND.

BAZARR                    *MARKETPLACE; GROUP OF SHOPS OR STALLS OR IN MORE MODERN TERMS A "FLEA"
                                    MARKET !


BEAD                                *ORNAMENT WITH A HOLE END TO END INTO WHICH A NEEDLE AND STRING IS INSERTED
                                           FOR NECKLACES, BRACELETS, ETC. MANY GLASS BEADS CAME BROM CZECHOSLAVAKIA
                                           IN THE 19TH CENTURY. MANY GLASS FACTORIES MAKE THEM TODAY BUT THE OLDER
                                           BEADS ARE MORE VALUABLE. BEADS WERE USED EVEN IN ANCIENT AND PRIMITIVE
                                           CULTURES AS MONEY OR TRADE ITEMS. THEY WERE IN MANY DIFFERENT SHAPES
                                           AND SOME WERE HAND DECORATED OR PAINTED.

BEAD LOOM        *THE FRAMEWORK FOR BEAD EMBROIDERY/WEAVING.

BEAD TIP        *SMALL CUP WITH A HOOK USED AT THE END OF A NECKLACE OR BRACELET TO HIDE THE KNOT AND
                             PROVIDE AN ATTACHMENT FOR CLASPS.

BEADS O' PARADISE     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR LEE PELZMAN, NEW YORK SINCE 1958

BEAD SET *REFERS TO A SETTING WHERE THE STONES ARE SECURED BY RAISED BEADS

BEATON, CECIL *DESIGNER AND FASHION PHOTOGRAPHER.

BEAU *1947-PRESENT. FOUNDED BY LUIGI RUSSO AND RINALDO SACCOCCIO IN PROVIDENCE RI AND
   DESIGNING STERLING SILVER AND 24K OVERLAY JEWELRY. SOME PIECES SIGNED B-STERLING.
   JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BEAUCRAFT, INC., PROVIDENCE, RI

BEAU BAIT *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR HABERMAN, INC., CINCINNATI OHIO SINCE 1961

BEAU BRUMMEL       *ARBITER OF ENGLISH MEN'S FASHION IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY. NUMEROUS ARTICLES
   OF MEN'S WEAR WERE NAMED AFTER HIM.

BEAU BRUMMEL       *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR SANDS MFG. CO., PROVIDENCE, RI. FOR MENS JEWELRY SINCE 1928

BEAUCRAFT    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF BEAUCRAFT, PROVIDENCE, R. SINCE 1947. MOSTLY STERLING
                              ITEMS INCLUDING NOVELTY. ALSO SEE BEAU STERLING.

BEAUTIFUL    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF AVON PRODUCTS, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1971
  BEGUILERS

BEAUTY BOX   *VANTIY CASE/BOX CONTAINING BEAUTY AND COSMETIC ITEMS OFTEN PURCHASED
                                                   CONTAINING PRODUCTS - THE BOX BEING THE "BONUS"

BEAUTY PINS    *SMALL PINS USED ON LINGEREE, COLLARS, ETC. ALSO CALLED HANDY PINS OR LACE PINS
     ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR MFG. WAS SHREVE & CO.  C.1910. AT THAT TIME  A 14K GOLD
     BEAUTY PIN WITH A DIAMOND SOLD FOR  $4.50!

BEAUTYCREST          *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF J.J.SCHMUKLER & SONS, NEW YORK SINCE 1930

BEAUZAL    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF ZAYRE CORP., NATIC, MAS. SINCE 1963

BECKEN    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF A.C.BECKEN, CHICAGO, ILL. SINCE 1934

BECKER, FRIEDRICH    *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN IN 1922 IN ENDE, FRG/

BEDOUIN                    *ARTICLES MADE AND WORN BY THE BEDOUIN TRIBES IN SAUDI ARABIA. MOST  ALWAYS OF
                                         SILVER, FREQUENTLY SET WITH TURQUOISE.

BEETLE    *THE IRIDESCENT GREEN BODIES OF BEETLES AND USED IN JEWELRY MAKING . ALSO SEE  SCAROB.

BEGEER,    *AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND, METALWORKER IN SILVER (CAREL BEGEER 1883-1956)
  CORNEILUS

BEGGAR    *INEXPENSIVE STRINGS OF MULTICOLOR BEADS OF AGATE OR JASPER FROM INDIA.
   BEADS

BEGUILING              *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF AVON PRODUCTS, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1972

BEHRENS, PETER   *JEWELRY/METALWORKER IN MUNICH C. 1868-1940

BEJEWELED *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF GAYLIN JEWELRY, NEW YORK SINCE 1946

BEL - AIR *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF BEL AIR INC, NEW YORK FOR MENS JEWLRY SINCE 1962

BEL - COR *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BEL-COR, INC., CHICAGO, ILL SINCE 1947

BELCANO *PERFUMERY.JERSEY CITY NJ; C. 1940'S; "ALL AGOG", NIGHT BLOOMS"

BELCHER                 *SCARF OF NECKTIE OF GARISH COLOR ORIGINALLY A BLUE NECKCLOTH MARKED  WITH WHITE
                                 SPOTS HAVING BLUE CENTERS AND NAMED FOR JIM BELCHER, AN   ENGLISH PUGILIST.

BELCHER              *IN JEWELRY - A HEAVY PRONGED RING SETTING POPULAR AROUND THE TURN OF THE
    SETTING            CENTURY.

BELCO CO. *COSMETIC MFG./ACCESSORY DESIGNER - RADIO GIRL PRODUCTS.

BELL TRADING *JEWELRY MFT., ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO/DIV. OF SUNBELL CORP., SINCE 1932. SPECIALIZING
  POST   IN STERLING, TURQUOISE, COPPER JEWELRY AND NOVELTY ITEMS. ALSO USED A GRAPHIC
   BELL  SUSPENDED FROM A POST.

BELLIS, JOHN O     .*SILVER METALWORKER - CALIFORNIA C.1910

BELNORD *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR SWISS RADIUM AND DIAL PAINTING CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1949

BELPERRON, SUZANNE  *FRENCH JEWELRY DESIGNER IN PARIS C. 1920-30]


BELTS                  *USED TO ENCIRCLE THE WAIST AND HOLD TROUSERS OR SKIRTS FIRM. METALLIC BELTS
                              AND LARGE METAL BUCKLES WERE POPULAR IN THE LATE 18TH CENTURY AND AGAIN IN
                              THE 30'S AND 40'S. IN VICTORIAN TIMES THE BELTS OFTEN MADE OF GOLD OR SILVER WERE
                              USED TO ACCENTUATE A SMALL WAIST. SOME WERE CHASED, ENGRAVED OR DECORATED
                              WITH GEMS. BELTS WERE CONSIDERED A TYPE OF JEWELRY AS FAR BACK AS ANCIENT TIMES.
                              WEALTH WAS SOMETIMES DETERMINED BY THE RICHNESS OF THE BELT.

 TYPES OF BELTS:
   BALDRICK - WORN DIAGONALLY FROM ONE SHOULDER TO OPPOSITE HIP
   CHAIN - MADE OF VARIOUS SIZES OF CHAINS AND SOMETIMES DECORATED
   CINCTURE - (SINK-CHER) TWISTED SILK, RAYON OR ROPE WORN BY CLERGY
   CONTOUR - CURVED TO FIT THE BODY - POPULAR IN 1890'S
   CORSELET - WIDE AND ENCLOSING THE RIB CAGE, SOMETIMES LACED
   COWBOY - USUALLY WIDE LEATHER AND TOOLED
   CUMMERBUND - WIDE FABRIC BELT SOMETIMES PLEATED
   GAUCHO - (GOW-CHO) USUALLY MEDALLIONS OF LEATHER/METAL JOINED TOGETHER WITH
      CHAINS. POPULAR IN LATE 1960'S. ORIGINATED W/SOUTH AMERICAN COWBOYS.
   GREEK - LONG NARROW SASH CROSSING OVER CHEST AND WINDING AROUND WAIST
   KIDNEY - VERY WIDE AND WORN WHEN MOTOCYCLING TO PREVENT INJURY
   MESH - MADE OF VERY SMALL METAL LINKS FASTENED TO FORM FLEXIBLE BAND
   MONEY - HAS HIDDEN COMPARTMENT FOR STORAGE OF MONEY
   OBI - SASH 4-5 WIDE AT CENTER AND TAPERING TO 1 1/2" AT ENDS. WORN WRAPPED AROUND WAIST
       ADOPTED FROM JAPANESE
   POLO - WIDE LEATHER BELT ORIGINALLY WORN BY PLAYERS FOR PROTECTION
   SAM BROWNE - HAS EXTENSION STRAP OVER RIGHT SHOULDER. MILITARY USE.
   SERPENTINE - WAVY DESIGN BELT
   SKIRT - ATTACHED PEPLUM POPULAR IN LATE 1960'S
   SPAGHETTI - LONG NARROW CORD USUALLY SELF FABRIC SOMETIMES KNOTTED AT ENDS
   THONG - WIDE LEATHER BELT WITH EYLETS AT EACH END FOR THREADING OF RAWHIDE.
   TOOLED LEATHER - HANDMADE LEATHER WITH VARIOUS DESIGNS
   WEBBED - USUALLY HEAVY CANVAS WITH A BUCKLE.



 

BENDEL               *COUTURE AND RETAIL SHOP LOCATED IN NEW YORK ESTABLISHED IN 1897. STOCKED
  HENRI                  READY TO WEAR AND FRENCH DESIGNED FASHIONS. INTRODUCED A PERFUME "UN PEU D'ELLE"
                              IN 1915.

BENEDICT & *JEWELRY MFG. OF PRECIOUS AND IMITATION/COSTUME JEWELRY; NEW YORK; 1904-1915
  WARNER

BENHAM & *LONDON, ENGLAND COPPER METALWORKER C. 1900 (CHRISTOPHER DRESSER, DESIGNER)
  FROUD

BENNARA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF VARGAS MFG. CO., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1969

BENNETT, JAMIE *CONTEMPORARY STUDIO JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST PREFERRING THE SCULPTURAL FORM
   AND ENAMEL MERGING COLOR AND FORM.

BENSON, J.W. *LONDON, ENGLAND JEWELRY DESIGNER C.1874-PRESENT.

BENSON, *LONDON, ENGLAND METALWORKERS, ART NOUVEAU, LAMPS, ORNAMENTATION C.1854-1924.
   WILLIAM SMITH    THEIR MARK WAS W.A.S.B IN A RECTANGLE.

BENTLEE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF BEN FELSENTHAL & CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1917

BERGERE' *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY L.ERBERT & POHS, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1947.
1947-1965             QUALITY JEWELRY THAT WAS PRODUCED INTO THE EARLY 1960'S. MOST PIECES
  WERE MARKED.  THEIR JEWELRY WAS CONSISTENT IN QUALITY AND DESIGN FROM
  ELEGANT TO WHIMSICAL.

BERLIN IRON    *CAST IRON JEWELRY MADE IN GERMANY EARLY IN THE 19TH CENTURY OFTEN INSCRIBED GOLD
                           GAB ICH FUR EISEN - I GAVE GOLD FOR IRON. TO FINANCE THE WAR OF LIBERATION AGAINST
                           NAPOLEON. THE VOGUE FOR BLACK IRON JEWELRY DIED OUT BEFORE THE  MIDDLE OF THE
                           CENTURY AND VERY LITTLE OF IT REMAINS. VERY EXPENSIVE AND BEAUTIFUL. MOST HAS
                           WHORLS OR MESH FILIGREE OF FINE IRON WIRE, VERY DELICATE. SOME HAVE SLIM CHAINS
                           HOLDING CAMEOLIKE PLAQUES TOGETHER. NOT HEAVY.

BERLIN WORK  *ALLOVER EMBROIDERY DONE IN BERLIN WOOL.

BERNARD,LES   *JEWELRY DESIGNER. EXQUISITE ORNATE JEWELRY MUCH OF IT FOR HOLLYWOOD AND THE
1962-PRESENT   MOVIE STARS. DESIGNED MUCH OF THE JEWELRY USED ON THE TELEVISION PROGRAM
                                "DYNASTY".  THE COMPANY WAS FOUNDED BY HAROLD SHAPIRO WHO WAS ALSO ASSOCIATED
                                WITH VOGUE JEWELRY, AND HIS SON BERNARD. THEIR INNOVATIVE DESIGNS ARE MUCH
                                COLLECTED. THEY ARE CURRENTLY MARKED ON THE QVC TELEVISION BUYER CHANNEL AS
                                WELL AS QUALITY DEPARTMENT STORES. PARTICULARLY COLLECTIBLE ARE THE MOVEABLE
                                BROOCHES OF THE EARLY 1960'S.

BERNICE  GOODSPEED*(1935-1971) MEXICAN STERLING JEWELRY DESIGNER IN PRE-COLUMBIAN DESIGNS.


 


BERNODOTTE, SIGVARD   *DENMARK SILVER METALWORKER FROM 1931-1947

BERTHA             *DEEP CAPELIKE COLLAR.

BERTHE              *(FRENCH) LARGE COLLAR SHAPED NECKLACE OF A NETWORK OF GEMSTONES AND PEARLS
                             SOME SUSPENDED OR DROPPED.

BERYL                  *IN JEWELRY A GEMSTONE FAMILY INCLUDING EMERALD, AQUAMARINE, AND HELIODOR OR
                              GOLDEN BERYL. SLIGHTLY HARDER THAN QUARTZ AND STRONGLY DICHROIC (TWO SHADES OF
                              THE SAME COLOR).   BERYL IS  ASTROGICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE HOUSE OF SCORPIO AND
                              ALSO WITH GEMINI.  IT WAS USED BY MYSTICS AND SEERS BECAUSE OF THE TRANSPARENCY
                              AND ABILITY TO GIVE "SIGHT" TO THE FUTURE.  BERYL WAS ALSO SAID TO BE THE GEMSTONE
                              OF ETERNAL YOUTH AND TO DREAM OF BERYL SIGNALED HAPPY NEWS.

BERTOIA, HARRY *JEWELRY DESIGNER OF THE POSTWAR MODERNISTIC PERIOD (B1915-1978)

BETROTHAL        *REFERRING TO SOMETHING GIVEN I.E.RING BY A GENTLEMAN TO HIS FIANCEE AS A TOKEN
                           OF HIS LOVE.

BETROTHAL       * RINGS  GIVEN AROUND THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY OFTEN BEARING LOVE MOTIFS; TWO
    RINGS              HANDS HOLDING A HEART, CLASPED HANDS THAT OPENED TWO RINGS (CALLED A GEMEL RING
                            OR A FEDE RING) AND POSY RINGS WITH LOVE SAYINGS ENGRAVED OR ENAMELED ON THEM.

BETSY ROSS *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF L.HARVEY CLAP & CO., ATTLEBORO, MA. SINCE 1931

BETTA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF HENRY DURLACHER/LS&L SETTING CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1970

BETTER *JEWELRY MFG. 1940'S AND 50'S
 RHINESTONE CO.

BEVEL                    *AS A JEWELRY FINDING IT IS A DOUBLE PRONG USED TO HOLD HANGING JEWELRY ITEMS.
                                *ALSO THE EDGE OF A MIRROR CUT TO REFLECT BACK ONTO THE SURFACE.

BEZEL                  *ROUND COLLAR OR SETTING INTO WHICH A GEMSTONE IS SET OR THE FACETS ON THE TOP OF
                              THE GEMSTONE.   ALSO CALLED A GROOVE OR FLANGE.


BFM *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR FRED M. BIRCH, PROVIDENCE, RI SINCE 1962 ON COSTUME & MEN'S
   JEWELRY.

BH *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR B&H JEWELRY CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1962. SPECIALTY IN PILL BOXES,
                                 CASES, CUFF LINKS,



BIBELOTS             *FRENCH TERM FOR TRINKET OR KNICKKNACKS OR SMALL ART OBJECTS.

BIBETTE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY JOSEPH H. MEYER BROS. BROOKLYN, NY SINCE 1958

BICKSON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY HARRY S. BICK & SONS, NEW YORK SINCE  1948

BICONE BEAD        *BEAD THAT TAPERS TO A CONE AT BOTH ENDS.

BICONICAL             *BEAD IN THE FORM OF TWO CONES JOINED AT THE BASES. SUCH BEADS ARE FOUND   MOSTLY      IN
                               THEIR ANCIENT FORM AMONG SUMERIAN AND EARLY EGYPTIAN.

BIG NAME *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY TRIFARI KRUSSMAN & FISHEL, CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1971
     BRANDS

BIGELOW, *JEWELRY MFG. C.1830 - 1972., BOSTON MASS.
  KENNARD & CO.

BIGOT, *PARIS FRANCE METALWORKER C.1862-1927
  ALEXANDRE

BIJOU                      *(BEE ZHOO) JEWEL OR TRINKET ESPECIALLY OF DELICATE OR ELIGANT WORKMANSHIP.

BIJOUX CASCIO *ITALIAN JEWELRY DESIGN/MFG. FOUNDED BY GAETANO CASCIO AND REPRESENTED BY SUCH COMPANIES
  AS BONWIT TELLER, LORD AND TAYLOR AND BLOOMINGDALES.

BIJOUTERIE             *COLLECTIVE JEWELRY OR TRINKETS AS ABOVE MADE OF METALS USUALLY GOLD AND SILVER.

BILLY AND            *NAME GIVEN TO OBJECTS OF A LARGE GROUP OF 19TH CENTURY JEWELRY FORGERIES
    CHARLEY           MADE AT TOWER HILL, LONDON BY TWO ILLITERATE MUD RAKERS.

BINDESBOLL,        *JEWELRY, ARCHITECT; DENMARK C.1846-1908
  THORVALD

BINGHAM, *C.1869 JEWELRY MFG. CLAIMING THE "GALVANIC RING" WHICH WAS TOUTED TO CURE      JAMES      RHEUMATISM PHILADELPHIA, PA.

BINNIE  *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY BINNIE CREATIONS, DEARBORN, MICHIGAN SINCE 1946

BIOMORPHIC  *REFERS TO AMOEBALIKE SHAPE

BIRKS, HENRY *MOTREAL, CANADA SILVER METALWORKER/JEWELERY DESIGNER (H.BIRKS 1840-1928)
   & SONS   1879 - PRESENT.

BIRMINGHAM    *ARTS AND CRAFTS ERA JEWELRY DESIGNERS. BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND 1890-PRESENT.
  GUILD OF THE         (ARTHUR DIXON, MONTAGUE FORDHAM, CLAUDE NAPIER CLAVERING, E.R. GITTIN)
  HANDICRAFT           MARK IS A DIAMOND SHAPE WITH THE INITIALS IN THE POINTS B G H L.



BIRTHSTONES
    *STONES THAT ARE PARTICULARLY  MAGICAL FOR A PARTICULAR MONTH OR FOR THOSE BORN
                           WITH CERTAIN ZODIACAL SIGNS.

                  MONTH                        COLOR                               STONE/S                                                                   MEANING

                 JANUARY -                  RED -                                  GARNET                                                    INSURES CONSTANCY, TRUE
                                                                                                                                                                            FRIENDSHIP AND FIDELITY
 

                 FEBRUARY -              PURPLE -              AMETHYST, ONYX OR PEARL -                         FREEDOM FROM PASSION AND
                                                                                                                                                                              FROM CARE
 

                  MARCH -                   PALE BLUE -      AQUAMARINE, BLOODSTONE, HYACINTH            COURAGE, WIDSOM

                   APRIL -                    WHITE/CLEAR -                  DIAMOND                                                          INNOCENCE AND PURITY

                   MAY -                   BRIGHT GREEN -     EMERALD, CHRYSOPRASE                                  DISCOVERS FALSE FRIENDS
 
                  JUNE                         CREAM -              PEARL, MOONSTONE, AGATE, CAT'S EYE -     INSURES LONG LIFE, HEALTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                 JULY -                       RED -                                  CORAL/RUBY -                                                DISCOVERS  POISON/RIDS EVILS

                  AUGUST -        PALE GREEN -    SARDONYX, PERIDOT, MOONSTONE      WITHOUT  STONES, NO CONJUGAL FELICITY
 

                SEPTEMBER -      DEEP BLUE -          CHRYSOLITE, SAPPHIRE, LAPIS -                            FREES FROM SADNESS
 
                   OCTOBER -               TAN -                 VARIEGATED OPAL, TOURMALINE -                        DENOTES HOPE/SIGHT

                   NOVEMBER -        YELLOW -                         TOPAZ, CITRINE, -                                         FIDELITY, FRIENDSHIP, PREVENTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                   SAD DREAMS

                   DECEMBER -       SKY BLUE -             TURQUOISE, BLUE ZIRCON -                          SUCCESS AND PROSPERITY IN  LOVE



 

BISHOP, HAZEL    *COSMETIC/ACCESSORY MFG./DESIGNER 1940'S.

BIWA PEARLS       *LUSTROUS FRESHWATER CULTURED PEARLS (OFTEN IN THE SHAPE OR RICE GRAINS
                              OR BAROQUES) THEY COME FROM LAKE BIWA IN JAPAN.

BIZARRE                  *EXTRAVAGANTLY ODD, UNUSUAL OR SHOWY.

BJC     *USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH A "DOG AND BALL" - JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BEATRIX
       JEWELRY CO., PROVIDENCE, RI. SINCE 1962


BLACK AMBER        *INACCURATE TERM FOR JET

BLACK BEAUTY       *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. NEW YORK SINCE 1946

BLACK CORAL          * A TRUE CORAL GROWTH MADE BY MARINE ORGANISMS CALLED POLYPS. BLACK   CORAL WAS
                                  FOUND IN THE RED SEA CENTURIES AGO AND MOST RECENTLY   IN OUR OWN HAWAII.      WHEN      POLISHED IT HAS A SATINY SHEEN SIMILAR TO   IVORY. NO TWO PIECES ARE ALIKE.

BLACK                          * NAME SOMETIMES GIVEN FOR HEMATITE ALSO A NAME GIVEN TO A SMOKY RHINESTONE
   DIAMOND

BLACK GLASS          *USED TO IMITATE JET OR ONYX. SEE JET OR ONYX.  *ALSO REFERS TO A TYPE OF GLASS  THAT WHEN HELD TO LIGHT SHOWS A   DEEP PURPLE HUE.THE GLASS WAS MADE BY MANY
                                  COMPANIES AS EARLY AS THE  17TH CENTURY AND IT IS STILL BEING MADE TODAY. IT TAKES
                                  CAREFUL STUDY  TO DETERMINE THE AGE BUT REGARDLESS THE GLASS IS COLLECTIBLE
                                  TODAY.

BLACK HILLS      *JEWELRY MFG. RAPID CITY, SOUTH DAKOTA. MFG. OF BLACK HILLS GOLD JEWELRY WHICH
  MFG. CO.        CONTAIN THREE COLORS OF GOLD IN EACH PIECE. A LEGEND SURROUNDING THIS TYPE
        OF GOLD IS THAT "A YOUNG JEWELER TRAVELING TO THE BLACK HILLS TO FIND GOLD BECAME LOST AND DREAMED OF FINDING A BROOK WITH GRAPEVINES ALONG SIDE. WHEN HE
        AWOKE HIS DREAM WAS TRUE. FEELING THAT THE DREAM SAVED HIS LIFE HE SET UP
                                       BUSINESS IN THE TOWNS OF DEADWOOD AND LEAD  WHERE HE MADE JEWELRY IN THE                           GRAPE  AND LEAF DESIGNS USING THE 3 COLORS OF GOLD IN EACH PIECE. THIS WAS C.1849.
        THE  SMALL GRAPE CLUSTERS WERE  MADE OF 10K YELLOW GOLD WHILE THE 12K GREEN AND
                                       ROSE GOLD IS USEDFOR THE LEAVES.  THIS JEWELRY IS STILL VERY POPULAR TODAY.

BLACK LIGHT          *ULTRAVIOLET LAMP USED FOR IDENTIFYING SOME MINERALS. LONG OR SHORT
                                WAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT EXCITES LUMINESCENCE OR FLOURESCENCE IN   SOME
                                GEMSTRONES (RUBIES, PEARLS, OPALS,) AND NEARLY ALL NATURAL MATERIALS   LIKE IVORY,
                                TURQUOSE AND AMBER WHICH HELPS IDENTIFY THEM. BLACK LIGHTS CAN BE PURCHASED                                   AT  JUST ABOUT ANY JEWELRY SUPPLIER AND CAN COST LESS THAN $50.

BLACK MAGIC     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ELZAC CALIFORNIA JEWELRY CREATIONS, LOS ANGELES
                                   INCORPORATING CERAMICS, LUCITE AND PLEXIGLASS SINCE 1943

BLACK ONYX               *MISNOMER FOR CHALCEDONY DYED BLACK AND USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR JET
                                           IN THE 1920-1930'S.

BLACK, STARR      * JEWELRY DESIGNERS, MFG. 1876-1929 AS BLACK STARR, FROST 0 GORHAM, INC. 1929-1940
  & FROST, NY        ; BLACK STARR & GORHAM 1940-1962 - THE FIRM ORIGINATED AS MARQUAND & CO. C.1810.
         THEIR MARK WAS A STANDING EAGLE WITH WINGS SPREAD AND BS&F OR BLACK, STAR &
         FROST, LTD. UNDERNEATH.  THEY CATERED TO THE RICH & FAMOUS AND THEIR DESIGNS WERE
         FEATURED IN ALL THE FASHION MAGAZINES OF THE DAY.

BLACKAMOOR      *REFERS TO THE ORNAMENTA L MOTIF OF AN AFRICAN MAN OR WOMAN. HIGHLY COLLECTED
       NOW AND DONE BY SEVERAL DESIGNERS IN THE 1940-50'S IN EXQUISITE FORM.  SOME STYLES
       WERE DONE IN CHALCEDONY OR BLACK ONYX.

BLACKBAND,W.T    *ARTS AND CRAFTS ERA JEWELRY DESIGNER - BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND 1885-1949

BLACKINGTON,       * JEWELRY, SILVER DESIGNERS (W. BALLOU & R. BLACKINGTON. NORTH ATTLEBORO, MASS.
  R. & CO.  1862 - PRESENT.

BLACKWORK         *PARTICULAR TECHNIQUE OF EMBROIDERY OF THE TUDOR PERIOD IN ENGLAND (16TH CENT)
                              WHERE PATTERNS WERE PICK IN BLACK AND SILVER THREAD.

BLAKRAFT   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY BLACHER BROS., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1924. ALSO USED ON
     HAND BAG FRAMES.

BLANC (BLONH)          *FRENCH WORD FOR WHITE OR BLEACHED.

BLAN-    *PERFUMERY.FOUNDED BY HOWARD KESTENBAUM AND HIS BROTHER, EUGENE IN NEW YORK C.
      CHARD                   1930. PERFUME "GARDENIA" 1932, "JEALOUSY" 1943. "CLIMAX" C. 1952(CREATED IN FRANCE).

BLISTER PEARL  * AN IRREGULAR SHAPED PEARL SOMETIMES HOLLOW UNLIKE A BAROQUE PEARL WHICH IS A
     SOLID IRREGULAR SHAPED PEARL.

BLITHE BLOSSOM    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1956

BLOODSTONE     *DARK GREEN CHALCEDONY SPRINKLED WITH RED SPOTS, LOOKING LIKE BLOOD. IN  ANCIENT
                            TIMES IT WAS THOUGHT THAT BLOODSTONE STOPPED BLEEDING. THE  VICTORIANS LIKED IT
                            TO   USE FOR SEAL RINGS AND WATCH FOBS. IT IS ALSO CALLED   BLOOD JASPER, ORIENTAL
                            JASPER AND HELIOTROPE.  BLOODSTONE ALTERNATES WITH THE AQUAMARINE AS THE
                            BIRTHSTONE FOR MARCH AND IS ASTROLOGICALLY IN THE HOUSE OF ARIES, THE RAM.  THIS
                            STONE WAS THOUGHT TO HAVE GREAT POWERS MEDICINALLY EVEN TO PROLONG LIFE!
                            THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF BLOODSTONES COME FROM INDIA AND RUSSIA.
                            THE NAME HELIOTROPE COMES FROM THE GREEK "HELIO" FOR SUN AND "TREPEIN" FOR TURNING.
                            THE RED AND BROWN SPOTS WHICH ARE SAID TO BE BLOOD ARE CAUSED BY IRON MINERALS.

BLOOMED GOLD     *MATTE SURFACE ON GOLD CREATED WHEN THE ACID ON THE SURFACE OF THE  GOLD
                               DESTROYS THE ALLOY, LEAVING A PURE GOLD 'BLOOM'.

BLOWN GLASS   *BEADS THAT ARE MADE OF SHAPING A TUBE OF MOLTEN GLASS INTO HOLLOW BUBBLES THEN
   BEADS    MAKING THE TWO HOLES BY BLOWING INTO THE MOULD.

BLUE BIRD *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY STEIN AND ELLBOGAN, CO., CHICAGO, ILL. SINCE 1920
                                  ALSO USED BY THE HENSHEL CO., INC. C. 1924.

BLUE DANUBE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1929

BLUE DROP *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY AVON PRODUCTS, NEW YORK SINCE 1971

BLUE GOLD  *ACTUALLY AN ALLOY OF GOLD MADE WITH 25% ARSENIC OR IRON. SELDOM USED NOW.

BLUE JOHN  *  A RICH BLUE SPECKLED FLUORSPAR FOUND MAINLY IN DERBYSHIRE, ENGLAND USED MOSTLY
                                    FOR MENS SIGNET RINGS. KNOWN ALSO AS FLOURITE.

BLUE/WHITE              *COLOR OF A VERY FINE DIAMOND - NOT A SCIENTIFIC TERM BUT A MODERN POPULAR ONE
     DIAMOND

BLUE GOLD             *BLUISH ALLOY OF GOLD MADE WITH 25% ARSENIC OR IRON.

BLUE NOCTURNE      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY KAUFMAN AND RUDERMAN, NEW YORK SINCE 1946

BLUE RIBBON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY WELLS MFG., ATTLEBORO, MA. SINCE 1936
     BANDS

BLUE RIBBON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY SIG DAWER & CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1929


BM *WITHIN A TRIANGLE - JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF BAUMAN -MASSA JEWELRY, ST.LOUIS, MO C.1889



BO-PEEP *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY BAUMAN-MASSA JEWELRY, ST. LOUIS, MO. FOR CHILDREN'S
   JEWELRY SINCE 1923.

BOB O LINK *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY EISENSTADT MFG. ,ST. LOUIS, SINCE 1915

BOBBLESTONES    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY PHILIP MORRIS, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1970

BOBIN  SPANGLE   *HAND MADE GLASS BEADS OF LAMPWORK, CRUM OR OTHER DECORATION. NAME COMES FROM
      BEAD                 POSSIBILITY THAT THEY WERE MADE IN ENGLAND TO DECORAGE ENGLISH LACE BOBBINS.

BOBLEY  *JEWLERY TRADEMARK FOR JOSEPH BOBLEY JEWELRY, NEW YORK SINCE 1955

BODKIN                  *A HAIR PIN MADE OF GOLD OR SILVER AND RICHLEY DECORATED.

BODOM                   *LARGE ANCIENT GLASS BEAD USUALLY WITH A BLACK CENTER, YELLOW SURFACE FOUND AND
       POSSIBLY MADE IN GHANA.

BOEKHOUDT, ONNO *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN IN 1944 IN HELLENDOORN, HOLLAND.

BOG OAK                *IN JEWELRY-A PEATLIKE MATERIAL USED AND LOVED BY THE VICTORIANS ESPECIALLY

BOG WOOD             THE IRISH. DARK BROWN IN COLOR AND CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM GUTTA PERCHA
                                 WHICH IS SIMILAR IN APPEARANCE BY THE FACT THAT BOG OAK WAS CARVED AND NOT
                                 MOLDED. IRISH BOG OAK USUALLY SHOWS A CASTLE, A HARP OR A SHAMMROCK. USUALLY
                                 SET IN BRASS THE FITTINGS WERE USUALLY INEXPENSIVE. JET IS LIGHTER THAN BOG
                                 OAK IN WEIGHT, DEAD BLACK IN COLOR, TAKES A HIGH POLISH AND WHEN YOU RUB IT ON
                                 YOUR HAIR OR WOOL IT CAN BE ELECTRIC.

BOGOFF    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF SPEAR NOVELTY CO., CHICAGO.  1940'S-50'S
   JEWELS BY              *ALSO TRADEMARK OF JEWELS BY BOGOFF, CHICAGO BETTER JEWELRY SINCE 1946

BOHEMIA                  *JEWELRY CENTER OF THE WORLD DURING THE 17-18 CENTURY. LOCATED BETWEEN
                                   CZECHLOSLAVAKIA  AND GERMANY, BOHEMIA BECAME INCLUDED IN  CZECH. AFTER WORLD
                                   WAR I AND BEGAN TO 1700'S - PRESENT LY   PRODUCE COSTUME JEWELRY. CORO, TRIFARI
                                   AND HASKELL BEGAN USING THEIR BEAUTIFULLY MADE STONES FOR THEIR OWN DESIGNS.
                                   GABLONZ IN NORTHERN BOHEMIA WAS A FAMILY  OF JEWELRY MAKERS FAMOUS FOR THEIR
                                   QUALITY. THEY WERE ALSO KNOWN FOR THE BEAUTIFUL  HUES OF THEIR STONES. THEY
                                   ALSO MADE MARCASITES AND BEADS AS WELL AS THEIR FAMOUS   CRYSTAL AND GARNET
                                   JEWELRY. *SEE LAMPWORK BEADING

BOHEMIAN                 *MISNOMER FOR ROCK CRYSTAL.
    DIAMOND

BOHEMIAN              *RED OR PYROPE GARNET. SOMETIMES CALLED BOHEMIAN RUBY. INEXPENSIVE.MOST
    GARNET               OFTEN FOUND IN ROSE CUTS OR CABOCHONS. USED WIDELY IN THE LATE 1800'S.

BOIN-TABURET     *FRENCH SILVER CRAFTSMAN C.1925

BOJESEN, KAI     *DENMARK METALWORKER IN SILVER C. 1930

BOLA                           *UNITED STATES INDIAN - LENGTH OF THIN BRAIDED LEATHER WITH DECORATIVE SILVER
                                     TIPS ON EACN END AND WORN AROUND THE NECK SOMETIMES HAVING A SLIDING
                                     ORNAMENT OR TOGGLE.

BOLIN, W.A. *JEWELRY DESIGNER IN SWEDEN AND RUSSIA C.1895-PRESENT. (CARL EDWARD BOLIN, WILLIAM JAMES BOLIN)

BOLLIN, MOYENS   * JEWELRY DESIGNER C.1900 IN DENMARK

BOLITA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY FORSTNER CHAIN CORP., IRVINGTON, NEW YORK SINCE 1950

BOLO      *SEE ABOVE.

BOMBAZETTE       *THIN SMOOTH FINISHED WORSTED FABRIC IN PLAIN OR TWILL WEAVE.

BOMBAZINE            *FINE PLAIN OR TWILLED ENGLISH FABRIC WITH SILK WARP. OBSOLETE TERM  USED FOR RAW
                                  COTTON.

BOMBE *HAVING SWELLED OR EXPANDED SIDES.

BON A FIDE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY EISENSTADT MFG. CO., ST. LOUIS FOR COSTUME RINGS AND
   ON FINE JEWELRY SINCE BEFORE 1908.

BONANZA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY WM.R.KATZ CO., DALLAS, TX. SINCE 1965

BONA FIT *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY SPEIDEL CHAIN CO., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1913

BONE                           *USED IN JEWELRY-BEADS AND CARVED OFTEN MASQUERADING AS IVORY BUT THEY ARE
                                     QUITE DIFFERENT IN APPEARANCE ONCE YOU LOOK  GOOD. BONE IS WHITE OR YELLOWISH
                                     WHITE,  HARD AND DULL IN APPEARANCE UNLESS IT HAS BEEN WAXED. THE GRAIN IS
                                     STRAIGHT BLACKISH OR GRAYISH LINES OR DOTS. IT CARVES DRYLY WITH POINTS AND
                                     ANGULAR MOTION. WHEN IT AGES IT YELLOWS.

BONE AMBER             *VARIETY OF AMBER THAT IS OPAQUE AND INCLUDES A MASS OF CLOSELY-SPACED
                                    AIR FILLED CAVITIES THAT RESULT IN A CLOUDY APPEARANCE.

BONEBAKKER &          *JEWELRY DESIGNERS FROM HOOLAND C.1767-PRESENT.
  & SONS

BONNER, J.    *ARTS AND CRAFTS ERA JEWELRY DESIGNER

BONNIE BELL              *PERFUMERY/COSMETIC COMPANYCLEVELAND, OH; C.1927; "ENGLISH BLUEBELLS: "FINAL
                                   TOUCH"

BONWIT     *PERFUMERY/DEPARTMENT STORE NY, NY; C.1935; "CHAMOIS", "VICTORIAN KEEPSAKE" TELLER, INC.

BOOK CHAIN *A CHAIN NECKLACE WITH FOLDOVER LINKS SOMETIMES ENGRAVED OR DESIGN STAMPED.
   POPULAR IN THE MID TO LATE 19TH CENTURY.

BOOKER T. *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MORTON E. MILLS/BOOKER T. WASHINGTON JEWELRY CO.,
  WASHINGTON         NEW YORK SINCE 1947

BOOTARIA *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY KITTY KELLY SHOE CORP., NEW YORK SINCE 1967
    IMPORTE'

BORDEAU  *CLARET COLOR, CLEAR DEEP RUBY-RED AS THE WINE FROM BORDEAUX GRAPES
       (BOR DOE)

BORNEO *SEE SADLER, F.H.

BOTAY *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USEDBY PAUL FLATO SALES CORP., NEW YORK SINCE 1953

BOUNTY OF *JEWELRY TREDEMARK USED BY LINMARK INTNNL.CORP, NEW YORK FOR PEARL JEWELRY
   THE SEA   SINCE 1952.
 


BOUCHER, MARCEL  *  JEWELRY DESIGNER FROM 1937-1971 COMING TO THE  US FROM FRANCE AND DESIGNING
   ET CIE                        FOR CARTIER AND TIFFANY.  PIECES ARE PRIZED FOR THEIR BAGUETTES AND
                                      EXCITING COLORED STONES.  EACH PIECE IS SIGNED "BOUCHER" AND MOST CONTAIN A
                                      NUMBER.  THE "MB" WAS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE "BOUCHER" C.1940-50.
       A LINE WAS MADE IN MEXICO FOR BOUCHER CALLED "PARISIANNA". BOUCHER'S WIFE,
       SANDRA, LEFT TIFFANY'S AND CONTINUED THE BOUCHER COMPANY AFTER HER
       HUSBANDS DEATH IN 1965.  THE JEWELRY IS KNOWN FOR ITS QUALITY AND USE OF
       BAGUETTES AND OUTSTANDING STONES.  VERY COLLECTIBLE IS A JEWELRY GROUP OF
       "EXOTIC BIRDS".
 

BOUCHERON       *LEADING FRENCH JEWELRY FIRM FOUNDED IN 1858 IN THE PALAIS ROYAL.   PARIS BY FREDERIC
                            BOUCHERON      (1830-1902) AND NOW HAVING THE MAIN ESTABLISHMENT  AT 26 PLACE
                            VENDOME, PARIS. SPECIALIST IN GEMS AS WELL AS A DESIGNER OF   LUXURY JEWELRY.
                            WELL KNOWN FOR THEIR EXQUISITE GEM SET JEWELRY. FIRM REMAINS FAMILY RUN WITH BRANCHES
                            ALL OVER THE WORLD.



BOUCHETTE            *(BOO SHET) LARGE BREASTPLATE BUCKLE . SHOPS ARE ALSO LOCATED IN BIARRITZ,
                               LONDON AND NEW YORK.

BOUCLE                 *(BOO CLAY) WOVEN OR KNITTED SO SURFACE HAS LOOPED OR KNOTTED APPEARANCE.
                               FRENCH WORD FOR "CURLED"

BOUDOIR                *(BOO DWAR)     *LADY'S PRIVATE ROOM OR BEDROOM

BOULLE WORK        *SPECIAL INLAY TECHNIQUE OF CHARLES ANDRE BOULLE USING TORTOISSHELL AND GERMAN
                               SILVER, BRASS OR PEWTER. ASSOCIATD WITH LOUIS XIV AND REGENCE PERIODS.

BOULTON,                *1728-1809. LEADING MANUFACTURER OF METAL OBJECTS IN BIRMINGHAM AND SHEFFIELD
          MATTHEW         LEADING CUT STEEL MAKER AND VAST QUANTITIES OF BUTTONS.

BOUQUET PIN         *A PIN OR STICKPIN WITH A HOLLOW VASE USED TO HOLD A SMALL FLOWER OR BOUQUET.
                               SOMETIMES DONE IN STERLING AND SOMETIMES WITH A SMALL CLASP TO SECURE THE
                               FLOWER. SOMETIMES CALLED A POSEY PIN.

BOUTON PEARL       *NATURAL PEARL OF CULTURED PEARL THAT IS FLAT ON ONE SIDE OR BUN  SHAPED. USED IN
                                EARRINGS, FINGER RINGS AND CUFFLINKS.

BOUTONNIERE          *FLOWER OR SMALL BOUQUET WORN IN A BUTTONHOLE. FRENCH WORD FOR  BUTTONHOLE.

BOURBON               *PERFUMERY.NEW ORLEANS, LA; C. 1920; "KUSKUS"FRENCH PERFUME MFG.

BOURJOIS *PERFUME COMPANY STARTED IN PARIS C. 1863.  THEY ARE ALSO CREATORS OF THE FIRST
 "POWDER" COMPACT. NOTED PERFUMES "MANON LESCAUT", ETOILE D'AMOUR" C. 1903
 "ASHES OF ROSES" C. 1909. NOTED FOR "EVENING IN PARIS' AND ITS FAMOUR COBALT BLUE
 BOTTLE.  ANOTHER COLLECTIBLE BOTTLE BY BOURJOIS IS "KOBAKO" DESIGNED LIKE A
               CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE.

BOUTON *NY, NY, :1930'S; "AMBRE D'OR" "RECKLESS"

BOUTTIER                  *FRENCH FOR ONE WHO DEALS IN BOOTS OR SHOES.

BOWENITE *SOFT STONE RESEMBLING JADE IN A YELLOW/GREEN TO BROWN COLOR AND
        EASILY CARVED. IT IS MINED IN NEW MEXICO.

BOX CLASP *REFERS TO THE CLOSURE FOR BRACELETS AND NECKLACES WITH A SLOT THAT ACCEPTS A
                                SPRING TYPE CATCH .

BOX SETTING *A BOX SHAPED SETTING FOR A STONE WITH THE EDGES PRESSED DOWN OVER THE STONE TO
     HOLD IT IN PLACE.

 BOYDEN                *FOUNDED SHOP MANUFACTURING JEWELRY, TROPHIES AND ECCLESIASTICAL WARES IN
   FRANK S.CO.         CHICAGO ALONG WITH FRED C. MINUTH.  SHOPMARKS ARE F.S. BOYDEN;CHICAGO; LETTER "F"
                                 WITHIN A LARGE LETTER "B".  BOYDEN WAS ACTIVE 1861 - 1943 AND MINUTH 1884-1966. THEY
                                 ARE CURRENTLY ACTIVE AS BOYDEN-MINUTH CO.

BOYTON, *LONDON, ENGLAND SILVER METALWORKERS C.1900-1940  MARK IS A CLOVER SHAPE WITH THE
  CHARLES & SON      INITIALS C B & S


BR   *INTERTWINED MARK FOR BERNARD ROSS, INC. ISLAND PARK, NY C. 1954 FOR JEWELRY ITEMS.


BRACELET             *POPULAR JEWELRY ITEM ENCIRCLING THE WRIST OR ARM AND EVEN ANKLE.
                                THEY HAVE BEEN POPULR SINCE ANCIENT TIMES. THE PERIOD 1850 - 1950    FROM THE FRENCH
                                PRODUCED "JOINTED" WIDE CUFF BRACELETS AND UNJOINTED BANGLES OFTEN WORD 'BRAS'
                                GIVEN IN FRIENDSHIP AS IN FRIENDSHIP RINGS AT A LATER DATE.    MEANING ARM.  BRACELETS
                                 WERE WORN BY INFANTS AS WELL AS ADULTS OFTEN DECORATED  WITH A PIECE OF CORAL
                                 OR SOME PROTECTIVE GEMSTONE. BRACELETS  REFLECTED THE CHANGING DESIGNS OF THE
                                 ERAS. FROM 1900 - 1905 CHARM  BRACELETS WERE POPULAR AND THE REEMERGED IN
                                 POPULARITY IN THE 30 'S. SOME WERE MADE OF MESH IN THE VICTORIAN DAYS AND SOME HAD
                                 A  LOCK AND KEY OR TASSELS HANGING FROM THEM. IT IS THOUGHT THAT BRACELETS GIVE
                                 ILLUSION AND BEAUTY TO THE ARM.  TYPES OF BRACELETS ARE  "THE BANGLE" SIMPLY A
                                 CIRCULAR BRACELET THAT SLIPS OVER THE HAND NOT NEEDING A CLASP AND MADE OF MANY
                                 DIFFERENT   MATERIALS FROM GOLD TO PLASTIC. "THE SLAVE BRACELET" IS SIMILAR TO
                                 A BANGLE BUT IS WORN HIGHER ON THE ARM. A "TAB BRACELET" IS ONE  BANGLE WITH A SOLE
                                 MOTIF OR CHARM. A "CUFF" BRACELET IS OVAL OR ROUND AND USUALLY HAS A HINGE FOR
                                 PUTTING ON THE WRIST. IT FITS  TIGHTER THAN THE BANGLE. THE "CHARM" BRACELET IS A
                                 CHAIN LINK TYPE  BRACELET WITH DANGLING CHARMS SOMETIMES DEPICTING MEMORIES OR
                                 ACTIVITIES IN ONES LIFETIME. A "FLEXIBLE" BRACELET HAS METAL OR STONE  SET MOTIFS AND
                                 A CLASP AND ARE MADE OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS. A "SPIRAL"  BRACELET IS ONE SINGLE
                                 LONG LENGTH OF BEADING, METAL OR STONES AND  WINDS AROUND THE WRIST OR ARM
                                 THREE OR FOUR TIMES. THE "INDIAN OR  GAUNTLET" BRACELET IS A RIGID OVAL THAT
                                 COVERS 3/4 OF THE WRIST WITH  ONE OPEN SIDE. THEY COME ALSO FROM PLAIN TO HIGHLY
                                 DECORATED. THE MORE MODERN "DIAMOND, WATCH OR PEARL BRACELETS" ARE MOSTLY
                                 ADD A LINK  OR STONE, BEAD AND CAN BE ADDED TO FOR MANY YEARS.

 TYPES OF BRACELETS :
 ANKLE - WORN AROUND THE ANKLE ALSO CALLED ANKLET
 ARMBAND - WORN ON THE UPPER ARM, USUALLY METAL. ORIG. IN EGYPT
 BANGLE - NARROW ROUND RIGID OF VARIOUS MATERIALS SOMETIMES WORN IN SETS
 CHAIN - MADE PRIMARILY OF CHAINS
 CHARM - CHAIN ON WHICH ONE OR MORE OBJECTS ARE HUNG.
 CUFF - OVAL SHAPED RIGID WITH OPENING IN BACK.
 EXPANDABLE - SPRING LINK METAL THE STRETCHES NEEDING NO CLASP
 HINGED - HAVING A HINGE TO OPEN WIDE FOR EASE IN WEARING
 ID - USUALLY HAVING LARGE LINKS WITH A METAL PLAQUE ENGRAVED WITH NAME OR INITIALS
 MALI - HANDMADE LEATHER DECORATED WITH TINY GLASS BEADS. ORIG. IN AFRICA
 MADONNA - ROUND RUBBER BANGLES WORN MANY AT A TIME. NAMED FOR ROCK STAR
 MEDIC ALERT - WORN TO INDICATE MEDICAL CONDITION, BLOOD TYPE, ETC.
 MESH - MINUTE METAL LINKS OR CONTINUOUS WOVEN.
 SCARAB - UADE OF USUALLY BEZELED OVAL SEMI PRECIOUS STONES I.E. LAPIS, CHALCEDONY
   ENGRAVED TO LOOK LIKE EGYPTIAN BEETLES. ORIG. IN EGYPE.
 SLAVE - ORNATE RING CONNECTED BY CHAIN TO A BRACELET WORN AROUND THE WRIST
   ORIG. IN EASTERN COUNTRIES.
 SLEEVE - ORNATE WORN AROUND UPPER ARM OVER SLEEFE TO MAKE PUFFED SLEEVE.
 SLIDE - SMALL PIECE OF PIERCED METAL WHERE FINE FLAT CHAINS ARE THREADED THRU
   ORNAMENTAL PLAQUES.
 SNAKE - METAL IN FORM OF A SNAKE COILED AROUND THE ARM. ORIG. GREEK.
 SPRING - BEADS STRUNG ON FLEXIBLE WIRE IN A SPIRAL.


BRADE, CHRISTINA * JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN IN LEISNIG, GDR IN 1936.

BRAID                      *NARROW STRIP MADE BY INTERTWINING SEVERAL STRANDS OF SILK, COTTON OR HAIR.

BRAMSON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY GRAMSON, INC., OAK PARK, ILL. SINCE 1932

BRANDT                    *FOUNDED IN 1914 IN CHICAGO THEY SPECIIALIZED IN JEWELRY AND HOUSEWARES. CLOSING
     METAL                   IN 1923. THEIR SHOPMARK WAS BRANDT METAL C RAFTERS.
      CRAFTERS

BRANDT, EDGAR      *PARIS, FRANCE METALWORKER 1900-1930

BRADLEY *NY NY; 1910; "AMRA" "WILDWOOD"
 D.R. & SON

BRAGG, T AND J    *BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND JEWELRS IN GOLD AND ENAMELS (THOMAS PERRY BRAGG,
                                THOMAS BRAGG, JOHN BRAGG)  C.1844-

BRAQUE, GEORGES *PAINTER BORN 1882 IN FRANCE AND LEADER IN CUBISM AND COLLAGE MOVEMENTS. HE WAS A
                          COLLEAGUE OF PICASSO AND THEIR DESIGNS INFLUENCED ALL VENUES OF ART AND ADORNMENT.

BRASON *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR J.BRAUNSTEIN, PHIL.PA., SINCE 1949

BRASS                    *A COPPER-BASED ALLOY WITH ZINC AS THE MAJOR ALLOY ELEMENT. WHEN YOU TEST
                                 FOR GOLD IF THE NITRIC ACID TURNS GREEN ON CONTACT WITH THE METAL, YOUR
                                 "GOLD" IS BRASS.BRASS WAS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF UTILATARIAN ARTICLES
                                  AS WELL AS DECORATIVE ACCESSORIES. ALMOST ANYTHING BRASS IS COLLECTIBLE
                                  BECAUSE OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SIMILAR ITEMS IN PLASTIC.

BRATEAU,JULES       * FRENCH METALWORKER FOR BOUCHERON. SPECIALIZING IN PEWTER.

BRAZILLIA FIRE        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF VARGAS MFG., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1971

 BRD *JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF BAYARDI BROS., INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1962

 BREAST CHAIN     *TYPE OF LONG CHAIN WORN AS AN ORNAMENT EXTENDING OVER THE BREAST AND
                               BACK USUALLY COMPOSED OF MANY ORNAMENTAL DISCS OR BEADS.

BREESE,               *METALSMITH PRODUCING JEWELRY AND SILVERWARE IN THE KALO SHOP STYLE IN CHICAGO
       EDWARD H.    ILLINOIS FROM 1921 UNTIL APPROX. 1940. HIS SHOPMARK WAS STERLING/HAND WROUGHT/EHB

BREGUET                *1747-1823.  FRENCH CLOCK AND WATCHMAKER UNDER LOUIS XVI.,
    ABRAHAM L.

BRELLOQUE           *SMALL SHARM IN FORM OF STATUETTE WORN ON A WATCH CHAIN.

BRENNER, JULES *POSTWAR MODERN JEWELRY DESIGNER.

BRIDALOK                *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR COLONIAL MFG. CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1948

BRIER MFG.      *MFG OF JEWELRY  C.1920-1978. SPECIALIZING IN GOLD-FILLED COSTUME. USED THE
       TRADEMARK 'LITTLE NEMO".

BRIGGS, BATES      *JEWELRY MFG., ATTLEBORO, MA. SINCE 1955 USING THE TAG "THE LAWS  I LIVE BY"
  &BACON, CO.            ALSO USED TRADEMARK "CARMELITA ".

BRIGHT A CUT         *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY JEWEL-SMITHS, INC., BOSTON, MA. SINCE 1946

BRILLIANT                 *ANOTHER NAME FOR A DIAMOND WITH 58 FACETS.

BRILLIANT CUT        *MODERN STYLE OF FACETING A STONE WITH 58 FACETS DESIGNED BY MARCEL TOLKOWSKY
                                IN 1919.

BRILLIANT PERIOD       *REFERS TO THE AMERICAN PERIOD IN CUT GLASS (1880-1910) CHARACTERIZED BY
     GEOMETRIC PATTERNS AND LEAD GLASS WITH DEEP CUTTING.

BRILLIANTS                   *ANOTHER TERM FOR PASTE, STRASS OR RHINESTONES. A CATCH,ALL PHRASE

BRILLION       *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY D.SWAROVSKI & CO., AUSTRIA SINCE 1962 INCORPORATING
         RHINESTONES AND CRYSTALS.

BRIOLETTE                *(BREE O LET)PEARSHAPED OR OVAL CUT DIAMOND OR OTHER STONE WITH SURFACE CUT IN
                                   LONG TRIANGULAR FACETS.

BRISE FAN                  *IVORY FAN POPULAR IN THE 18TH CENTURY ENGLAND COMPOSED ENTIRELY OF
                                      STICKS AND GUARDS WITH UP TO THIRTY PIERCED OR PAINTED BLADES
                                      LINKED AROUND THE PERIMETER WITH RIBBONS.

BRISTOL                      *ANOTHER NAME FOR ROCK CRYSTAL.
     DIAMOND

BRISTOL GLASS        *TRANSPARENT DEEP-BLUE GLASS USED FOR BEADS AND OTHER ORNAMENTATION.

BRITANNIA                   *SILVER ALLOY OF 958 PARTS SILVER TO A THOUNSAND OF METAL. INTRODUCED IN ENGLAND
    STANDARD               IN 1697 AND IN 1720 THE PREVIOUS STERLING STANDARD WAS RESTORED.

BRITE       *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY BRITE MFG., PROVIDENCE RI FOR MENS AND WOMENS
        COSTUME JEWLERY SINCE 1941

BROADHEAD, CAROLINE *JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN 1950 IN ENGLAND.

BROCADE                   *FROM LOW LATIN FOR "TO EMBROIDER". ORIGINALLY A FABRIC OF SILK, SATIN,
                                    OR VELVET VARIEGATED WITH GOLD AND SILVER OR RAISED AND ENRICHED WITH
                                    FLOWERS, FOLIAGE AND OTHER ORNAMENTATION. DONE ON A JACQUARD LOOM.

BROCADE                   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR THE WEIDLICH BROS., BRIDGEPORT CONN, ON SILVER PLATED
    NOVELTIES SINCE 1923

BROCATELLE               *ORIGINALLY AN IMITATION OF ITALIAN TOOLED LEATHER. ALSO A   CALCAREOUS STONE OR
                                   MARBLE HAVING A YELLOW GROUND FLECTED WITH WHITE, GRAY AND RED.

BROCHE                      *SILK OR SATIN GROUND FABRIC SIMILAR TO BROCADE.

BROCHETTE                 *(BRO SHET) SMALL BROOCH

BROGDEN, JOHN         *1842-85. LONDON JEWELER AND GOLDSMITH IN THE EGYPTIAN AND ASSYRIAN  MOTIFS.

BROLAY     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY BROWN, BARZILAY, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1930

BROMSGROVE      * ORNAMENTATION AND APPLIED ART; ENGLAND; 1890-?, WALTER GILBERT, ARTHUR GASKIN
  GUILD OF APPLIED ART       - GEORGINA GASKIN, JOSEPH HODEL.

BRONZE    *A COPPER-BASED ALLOY WITH TIN AS THE MAJOR ALLOY. FURTHER DEFINED
                    BY A SECOND ALLOY ELEMENT SUCH AS SILICON OR ALUMINUM.
                    USED FOR SCULPTURE IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME AS WELL AS CHINA AND
                    AFRICA. AS BRONZE AGES AND REACTS WITH CHEMICALS IT TAKES ON A GREENISH
                    TINT AND MATTE SURFACE CALLED A PATINA. A PATINA CAN ALSO BE CHEMICALLY
                    INDUCED. SOME OF THE EARLIEST AMERICAN SCULPTORS WERE THOMAS BALL, LEONARD
                     VOLK AND GEORGE BESSELL. HISTORICAL FIGURES WERE POPULAR AS WERE THE
                     LATER REMMINGTON AMERICAN WEST BRONZES.  ART NOUVEAU LADIES AND
                     ANIMALS WERE ALSO POPULAR. THESE ARE BEING RECAST AND SHOULD BE
                     PRICED AS SUCH. THE RECAST BRONZES ARE NOT SO DETAILED AND ARE USUALLY
                     SMALLER THAN THE ORIGINAL DUE TO THE SHRINKAGE OF THE MOLD.

BRONZE-  *GILDED BRONZE
     DORE

BRONZED *HAVING THE APPEARANCE OF COPPER OR BRONZE EITHER PAINTED ON OR
                   APPLIED ELECTROSTATICALLY.

BROOCH   *A PARTICULARLY LARGE, FINE PIN WORN ON THE CHEST SOMETIMES AT THE  NECK. MADE IN A
                   VARIETY OF DESIGNS TO REFLECT THE ERA AND IN MANY DIFFERENT METALS SOME CONTAINING
                   PRECIOUS  GEMS, DIAMOND, PEARLS AND  LATER COSTUME JEWELRY WITH RHINESTONES.

BROSAMER,              *  1480-1554.  GERMAN DESIGNER OF JEWELRY.
      HANS

BROSSE *FOUNDED IN 1854 THIS FRENCH COMPANY IS KNOWN FOR THE EXCELLENT QUALITY OF
      VERRERIE             BOTTLES,CRYSTAL AND GLASS. THEY CONTINUE TODAY MAKING HIGH QUALITY,
  STOPPERED SEMI AUTOMATIC BOTTLES FOR COMPANIES SUCH AS WARNER, GUY
  LAROCHE, GIORGIO, HERMES, RICCI, UNGARO, GRES AND GUERLAIN.  THEIR TRADEMARK
                                 ON THE BOTTLE IS VB OR BR.

BROWNSWORTH, ANN *JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN 1950 IN AUSTRALIA.

BRS                   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MORRIS BRESSMAN, NEW YORK SINCE 1962

BRUSHED GOLD      *TYPE OF TEXTURED GOLD HAVING A MATT FINISH MADE BY USING A WIRE BRUSH ON A LATHE.


BUBBLE O BILL        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ROBERT J. CORCORAN, BEVERLY HILLS, CA. SINCE 1951

BUBBLEITE *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY GALL NOVELTY CO., DALLAS, TX SINCE 1955

BUCKLES            *USED TO FASTEN A BELT, SASH, SHOES, CAPES AND/OR HATS. IT WAS ACTUALLY   A TYPE OF
                             BROOCH WITH A SIMULATED HASP THAT WAS PINNED IN FRONT OF A BELT ,  SASH OR
                             SHIRTWAIST. MADE FROM MANY DIFFERENT MATERIALS FROM GOLD TO   BOUCHETTE   TO
                             CHROME. CARRIED MANY DESIGNS AND SOMETIMES USED GEMSTONES OR PEARLS.
                             THEY WERE FASHIONABLE ON BELTS AFTER THE TURN OF THE CENTURY.  SOME
                             SHOE BUCKLES CAME IN OXIDIZED SILVER AND WERE USED TO DECORATE. SOME WERE MADE
                              FROM  CUT STEEL WHICH WERE BEAUTIFUL AND COLLECTABLE TODAY. WITH THE DEMISE
                              OF QUEEN VICTORIA, BROWN CAME INTO FASHION AS WELL AS FRENCH GRAY.  BUCKLES
                              CHANGED FROM THE TYPICAL SQUARE TO ANGULAR AND CUMBERBUND   STYLES.

BUCKLEY,NADJA   *JEWELRY DESIGNER C.1940-1950 OF ELEGANT JEWELRY. SOME WERE GOLD WASHED SILVER
  AND SOME SET WITH SEMIPRECIOUS STONES. SHE ALSO DESIGNED ACCESSORIES/COMPACTS
  ETC. HER JEWELRY SOLD ONLY AT THE FINEST DEPARTMENT STORES. ONE OF HER COMPACTS
  SOLD IN 1945 AT BONWIT TELLER FOR $900. PIECES ARE RARE AND EXTREMELY COLLECTIBLE.
 

BUDDHIST  *STRING OF 108 BEADS SOMETIMES ACCENTED WITH DANGLES OR PENDANTS.
  PRAYER BEADS

BUDHOFF, INC.          *JEWELRY MFG., NEW YORK C.1970 - CLAIMED A FAKE DIAMOND "DIA-BUD".

BUFF TOP                 *A LOW CABOCHON TOP GEMSTONE CUT THAT HAS A FACETED PAVILION.

BUFFALO                 *WOOLEN FABRIC HAVING A SHAGGY PILE AS BUFFALO FUR, INDIANS NEW THEM AS BUFFALO
                                   ROBES.

BUFFALO ARTS        *METALWORKERS; BUFFALO, NEW YORK C. 1900-1915  MOSTLY SILVER AND COPPER.
  & CRAFTS SHOP

BUFFON,                  *ARTICLE OF NECKWEAR USUALLY OF GAUZE OR LINEN/LACE/ PUFFED OUT OVER THE BREAST.
       BUFFONT           POUTER PIGEON STYLE. POPULAR IN LATE 18TH CENTURY.

BUGLE BEAD          *TYPE OF GLASS BEAD IN FORM OF AN ELONGATED HOLLOW CYLINDER SOMETIMES
                                  USED AS A SEPARATOR OF LARGER BEADS AND ALSO USED PROFUSELY DURING THE
                                  1920'S AS LONG FLAPPER NECKLACES.

BULGARI                  *LEADING ITALIAN JEWELRY FIRM LOCATED IN ROME. C.1881-PRESENT (GEORGE BULGARI,
                                   CONSTANTINO BULGARI, GIORGIO, BULGARI, SOTIRI BULGARI)

BULGARIAN             *ARTICLES FOUND IN THE REGION THAT IS NOW BULGARIA.DIFFLCULT TO FIND AND  VERIFY.

BULLA                      *ANCIENT NECK ORNAMENT THAT CONSISTED OF TWO HINGED PLATES SUSPENDED FROM
                                   A CORD OR CHAIN. THIS WAS REVIVED DURING THE VICTORIAN PERIOD AND AGAIN IN THE
    1920'S.

BULLION LACE          *HEAVY GOLD OR SILVER LACE.

BULLION   *FINE SILVER OR GOLD PLATED WIRE COIL MADE TO PROTECT THREAD . ALSO KNOWN AS GIMP,
                                  , PURL, NECKLET ENDS AND SOMETIMES  FRENCH WIRE.

BULL'S EYE    * GRAPHIC JEWLERY TRADEMARK FOR HERFF-JONES CO., INDIANAPOLIS, IND. SINCE 1946

BULOW-HUBE, *JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN 1927 IN SWEDEN.
  TORUN VIVIANNA

BUNNY *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY UNCAS MFG. CO., FOR FINGER RINGS SINCE 1960

BURCHARDT *DESIGNER MARY BETH BURCHARDT OF MBB JEWELRY - CONTEMPORARY JEWELRY DESIGNS.

BURGES, WM. *ENGLISH JEWELER, AND ARCHITECT C. 1827-1881.

BURGUNDIAN         *TRADITIONAL J19TH CENTURY JEWELRY ATTRIBUTED TO NORTHERN EUROPE. OUTSTANDING
  JEWELRY DESIGN AND QUALITY WORN IN 14-15TH CENTURIES AND SUPPOSEDLY WORN BY THE
                                DUKES OR BURGANDY AND THEIR COURTS.

BURNING BUSH *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CAROLE ACCESSORIES, LOS ANGELES, CA. FOR MENS AND WOMENS
   JEWLERY SINCE 1963.

BURNTWOOD *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY HAROLD GOLDKRANTZ, NEW YORK SINCE 1958 - COSTUME AND
   FAUX PEARLS.

BURY,CLAUS          *1946-. DESIGNER MAKER OF JEWELRY BORN IN HANAU, GERMANY. USES ACRYLIC
                                 IN COMBINATION WITH GOLD.

BURY, POL             *JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN IN 1922 IN HAINE-SAINT PIERRE, BELGIUM.

BUTLER & *   BRITISH ANTIQUE JEWELERS AND DESIGNERS - NICKY BUTLER AND SIMON WILSON.
  WILSON     COLLECTORS OF ELEGANT JEWELRY THEN DESIGNERS OF THEIR OWN COMBINATION
     OF STYLES. BEGAN AS ANTIQUE DEALERS IN JEWELRY IN THE LATE 1960'S AND LATER
                                    DESIGNERS. NOW FAMOUS THE WORLD OVER AND ACCESSORIZING THE MOST FAMOUS.

BUTTERFLY *BUTTERFLIES HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PREFERRED IN PERSONAL ORNAMENTATION PROBABLY
   JEWELRY   BECAUSE OF THEIR BEAUTY AND FRAGILITY OF LIFE.  THERE WERE BUTTERFLIES USED IN
   JEWELRY AS EARLY AS EGYPTIAN TIMES. AMERICAN INDIANS CONSIDERED THE BUTTERFLY AN
   HONORED INSECT AND FEATURE IT IN MUCH OF THEIR ORNAMENTATION. THE BUTTERFLY IS
   VERY IMPORTANT IN CHINESE AND ASIAN CULTURES - USED BY ITSELF IT SYMBOLIZES JOY,
   SUMMER. THEY HAVE BEEN DEPICTED IN JEWELRY USING  A WIDE VARIETY OF MATERIALS SUCH
   AS, PORCELAIN, JADE, SILVER, BEADS, FEATHERS, ENAMEL ,E TC.  WEARING A BUTTERFLY
   SOMEHOW SYMBOLIZES THE  REVERENCE FOR THE BEAUTY OF LIFE NO MATTER HOW SHORT.

BUTTERFLY   *  DECORATIVE CHINESE KNOT USED IN NECKLACES, PENDANTS, TASSELS, ETC.
   KNOT.

BUTTON *NY, NY; C.1935; "MAH-JONGG", "SEALED SECRETS"
 GEORGE W.

BUTTON HOOKS    *USED IN THE MID 1800'S AND DESIGNED TO AID IN BUTTONING HIGH     BUTTON UP SHOES,
                                 GLOVES AND COLLARS. THEY WERE MADE FROM ALMOST  ANY CONCEIVABLE MATERIAL FROM
                                 IVORY AND BRASS TO GOLD AND SILVER.    SOME WERE EVEN ORNATELY CARVED WITH
                                 GEMSTONES. PRICES VARY ACCORDING  TO MATERIAL AND DESIGN.

BUTTONS                *FASTENERS MOST USUALLY ROUND AND WOMEN'S DRESS BUTTONS CAME IN SETS OF
                                       THREE AND WERE SOMETIMES JOINED BY A VERY DELICATE LOVELY LINK CHAIN
                                       WHICH PREVENTED LOSS. BUTTONS WERE FOR A VERY LONG TIME CONSIDERED JEWELRY
                                       AND WERE MADE AS FAR BACK AS ANCIENT TIMES IN A VARIETY OF MATERIALS FROM
                                       NATURAL BONE, IVORY AND STONE TO GOLD, SILVER, PORCELAIN AND PLASTICS.
                                       SOME WERE BEAUTIFULLY ENGRAVED OR HAND PAINTED. THESE BUTTONS ARE VERY
                                       COLLECTABLE TODAY AND ARE EVEN BEING BROUGHT BACK AS JEWELRY.

         RESOURCE:  PRAIRIE PEDLARS, RT. 1, BOX 130, LYONS KS 67554 - VIDEO $15/CATALOG


BYPASS  * BRACELET OR RING WITH OPEN ENDS THAT CROSS PARALLEL AT THE FOCUS POINT.

BYZANTINE        *OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE CONSTANTINOPLE BECAME THE SEAT OF THE ROMAN
                             EMPIRE AD 330 AND AFTER THE FALL OF ROME IN 476 IT BECAME THE SEAT OF THE
                             BYZANTINE EMIRE UNTIL 1453. THE NAME BYZANTINE IS DERIVED FROM THE
                             ORIGINAL TOWN OF BYZANTIUM WHICH WAS RENAMED CONSTANTINOPLE BY THE
                             EMPEROR CONSTANTINE. THE DESIGNS THAT FLOURISHED HERE WERE COMPOSED
                             OF ROMAN FORMS OVERLAID WITH NEAR EASTERN MOTIFS. DOMES, ROUNDED
                             ARCH, MOSAICS.