ORNAMENTS, JEWELRY & ACCESSORY
OJA
CONTAINS INFORMATION ON ALL AREAS OF ORNAMENTATION INCLUDING
DESIGNS  *  JEWELRY  *  TEXTILES  *  DESIGNERS  *  MANUFACTURERS
PERFUMERS  *  HALLMARKS  *  HISTORICAL INFORMATION
TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH ORNAMENTATION


C

CP      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR PHYICHRIS CORP., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1962

C      *INSIDE AN UPSIDE DOWN SHIELD - JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR RICHTON INTL., NEW YORK SINCE 1970

C      *INSIDE A SHIELD - JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR HAROLD WEISS/CREST JEWELRY NEW YORK SINCE 1945

C      *WITH A TRIANGLE - JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CHARLES MFG., PROVIDENCE R.I. SINCE 1962.

C - STAR      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CRAFT RING & FINDING CO. SINCE 1962

CA TRADEMARK      *  WITHIN AN OVAL WITH PIERCING ARROW - CARL-ART, INC. SINCE 1937

CB      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR COLLISION BROS., PHILADELPHIA PA. SINCE 1962

CC      *DOUBLE INSIDE "C" JEWELRY TRADEMARK OF ALLAN L. SELTZER OF CHATHAM CREATIONS SINCE 1962

C-C      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR JAMES J. BURKE, ST. LOUIS, MO. SINCE 1952

C.C.      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CURTMAN CO., PROVIDENCE, R.I. SINCE 1950

CC      *VERTICAL DOUBLE C WITH LINE - JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CATHAY CRAFTS CORP., NEW YORK SINCE 1962

CM      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CINER MFG., NEW YORK SINCE 1914. THE "MC" IS IN A VERTICAL RECTANGLE.

C.T.      *CHEEVER, TWEEDY & CO.,INC., NORTH ATTLEBORO, MASS.  C. 1880

C-CLASP    *THE CLOSURE FOR A BROOCH UP UNTIL APPROX. 1890.


CABALLEROS DE DEIMAS      *JEWELRY MARK SINCE 1921. SAN FRANCISCO.

CABOCHON      *STONE CUT WITH A SMOOTH, DOMED SUFRACE WITH NO FACETS.  STONES MOST OFTEN USED -                                               TURQUOISE, QUARTZ, JADE

CACHAREL      *PARIS, FRANCE; C.1978 "ANAIS-ANAIS"

CADILLAC       *TRADEMARK FOR PARKWAY MFG., PROVIDENCE SINCE MARCH 1960

CADORO          *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CADORO, NEW YORK FROM APPROX. 1955 UNTIL
     THE EARLY 1980'S. USED QUALITY MATERIALS FROM EUROPEAN MARKETS.

CAGEWORK  *HAND-CUT, PRESSED DECORATIVE METAL ENCASINS OVER A GLASS BOTTLE
     ETC. APPLIED OVER THE GLASS NOT ON IT.

CALDER, ALEXANDER      *1898-1976. POSTWAR MODERN JEWELRY DESIGNER.

CALF LINKS     *TRADEMARK FOR JOSEPH J. MCDERMOTT, NY SINCE 1956; CHAINS, BEADS, ETC.

CALIFORNIA MAID                                    *TRADEMARK FOR NATHANIAL M. KIRSCHNER, LOS ANGELES SINCE MARCH 1931
                                                                 THEY MADE PENDANTS, CHARMS, BROOCHES; GOLD OR SILVER PLATED.

CALIFORNIA PERFUME       *NY NY; C.1927; "SONNET", "TOPAZ" (NOW AVON INC.)
  COMPANY

CAIRNGORM                                  *SMOKY QUARTZ IN GREY-BROWN FROM SCOTLAND AND USED DURING
                                                        QUEEN VICTORIA'S REIGN. IT IS SOMETIMES (INCORRECTLY) CALLED
                         A SCOTTISH TOPAZ. CONSIDERED CELTIC JEWELRY.

CALDER, ALEXANDER  *SCULPTURE/JEWELRY DESIGNER BORN 1898 IN PHILADELPHIA (DIED 1976)

CALIBRE                                 *  FORM OF CUTTING A GEMSTONE IN ORDER TO FIT A PARTICULAR SETTING.

CALLING CARD                                 *TRADEMARK FOR FUTURE HOUSE, INC. OMAHA NE SINCE JULY 1955

 CALLOT SOEURS                                     *PARIS FRANCE, NY NY; C. 1925; "BAO", "MARRIAGE D'AMOUR"

CALVAIRE         *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CALAVAIRE, INC. NEW YORK 1935-60 . THEIR
                                PIECES CONTAIN MINUTE DETAIL AND SUPERB STONES, ORMOLU AND
                                WIRING AS WELL AS USE OF ENAMEL. MARK IS "CALVAIRE" WITHIN A
                                SMALL CIRCLE AND IT IS THOUGHT THAT MANY WERE UNMARKED.

CAMBAY                                           * ANCIENT TRADE CENTER AND PORT ON THE WEST COAST OF INDIAN.


CAMEO    * BAS-RELIEF FEATURE CARVED FROM HARSDTONE, SHELL, CORAL, LAVA, JET, GEMSTONES, BOG OAK. USUALLY ONE COLOR FORMS THE BACKBROUND AND ANOTHER THE FEATURES WHETHER NATURALLY OR APPLIED.
A CAMEO CUT WITHIN A CONCAVE DEPRESSION WITH THE HIGHEST PART OF THE FEATURE EQUAL TO THE
EDGE OF THE STONE IS CALLED A CHEVETT, CHEVEE, CURVETTE OR CUVETTE.
VERY POPULAR DURING THE VICTORIAN PERIOD AND CARVED FROM ONYX, SARDONYX, CORNELIAN
AND THE BLACK HELMET AND PINK AND WHITE QUEEN CONCH SHELL. STONE CAMEOS ARE GENERALLY
MORE VALUABLE THAT SHELL, THO THE SHELL WERE MORE POPULAR. SCENIC CAMEOS ARE MORE
EXPENSIVE THAN THE BUST TYPE. "REBECCA AT THE WELL" WAS A POPULAR SUBJECT C. 1860.



CAMEO HABILLE'   * CAMEO IN WHICH THERE IS AN ADDITIONAL ORNAMENTATION OF A NECKLACE
     EARRINGS IS USED WITH TINY GEMSTONES.

CAN COMPACT                            *EARLY 20TH CENTURY VANITY CASE THAT CONTAINED A REMOVEABLE INTERIOR
                             SO IT COULD BE USE FOR MULTI STORAGE, ETC.

CANASTA  `* TRADEMARK FOR SPERRY MFG. CO. IN PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1948 FOR THEIR
  (WRITTEN IN SCRIPT)     LINE OF BRACELETS, SCATTER PINS, ETC.

CANASTA (PRINTED)      *  TRADEMARK OF CASTLEMARK, NY FROM SEPTEMBER 1949

CANDIDA      *  TRADEMARK FOR WILLIAM RAND OF NEW YORK FROM 1946

CANDLELIGHT      *  TRADEMARK FOR WEINREICH BROTHERS CO. NY, SINCE 1947

CANE      *LONG ROD OF DRAWN OUT GLASS READY TO MELT AND USE IN ORNAMENTATION OR DECORATION.

CANNETILLE  * OPEN WIREWORK DONE MOSTLY IN THE GEORGIAN PERIOD

CANOVAS, ISABEL  *FASHION ACCESSORY AND JEWELRY DESIGNER. WORKED FOR DIOR AND VUITTON
   AND BECAME KNOWN IN HER OWN RIGHT C. 1980'S.

CANVAS WORK  *VICTORIAN BEAD EMBROIDERY DONE ON CANVAS BACKING AND SEEN ON
    FOOTSTOOLS  TEA   COSIES, TRAYS, SLIPPERS. ETC.

CAPRI  *TRADEMARK USED BY HICKOK MFG. CO. FORTHEIR CUFF LINKS, ETC. SINCE 1954

CAPRI  *SEE DI NICOLA

CAPUCCI  *PARIS, FRANCE; C.1960; "GRAAFFITTI", "YENDIE"

CAR MATES  *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY JOSEPH M. RUBIN & SONS, NEW YORK SINCE 1955


CARAT  * UNIT OF WEIGHT FOR GEMSTONES. METRIC CARAT WAS SET AS 1/5GRAM OR
    200 MILLIGRAMS SINCE 1913. USED WITH CUT AND UNCUT GEMSTONES.
    CARAT IS ONLY ONE OF THE 4 C'S (SEE DIAMOND) IN JUDGING GEMSTONES.

    UNIT(KARAT)  USED TO DETERMINE THE PURITY OF METAL - 24 CARAT BEING
    PURE GOLD. MOST GOLD IS TOO SOFT TO USE IN JEWELRY THEREFORE OTHER
    METALS ARE COMBINED LESSENING THE "CARAT" TO 9,14,18 OR 22 CARATS.
    A TEST USING ACID IS USED TO DETERMINE THE CARAT VALUE OF GOLD.


CARBUNCLE      *ANOTHER NAME FOR A GARNET.

CARCANET      *(CAR KA NET) NECKLACE OR COLLAR USUALLY JEWELED OR BEADS.

CARDIN, PIERRE       *PARIS, FRANCE C.1976; "CARDIN"

CARDIN      *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR PERRE CARDIN, VENICE ITALY BORN AND MOVED TO
   FRANCE 1950-PRESENT. PIERRE CARDIN WORKED FOR SCHIAPARELLI AND FOR DIOR
   IN PARIS BEFORE ESTABLISHING HIS OWN HOUSE C.1950 IN FASHION DESIGN.
HE IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE FOUNDER OF THE "UNISEX" TREND IN FASHION
    PAVED THE WAY FOR MEN'S FASHION ACCESSORIES. "SWANK" IS THE MENS ACCESSORY
    LICENSEE FOR THE CARDIN LINE IN THE UNITED STATES.

CARDINAL      *TRADEMARK USED BY BAUMAN-MASSA, ST. LOUIS SINCE J1935

CARESS          *TRADEMARK USED BY WEINREICH BROS. NY SINCE 1949

CARIBBEAN SUMMER     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY AVON PRODUCTS, NEW YORK SINCE 1970

CARLE, JEWELS BY          * TRADEMARK USED FOR CRESCENT JEWELRY, RICHMOND VA. SINCE 1952

CARMEN      *  TRADEMARK USED BY ASSOCIATED ATTLEBORO MFG., MA. SINCE 1900


CARNEGIE, HATTIE  *FAMOUS FASHION AND JEWELRY DESIGNER WHO IMMIGRATED FROM AUSTRIA
1919-1970'S               SHE HAD AN UNCANNY SENSE OF FASHION FOR THE AMERICAN WOMAN AND
                                     I NITIATED THE "LITTLE CARNEGIE SUIT".  SHE EXPANDED HER LINE IN JEWELRY
                            FASHION, JEWELRY  AND PERFUME WITH THE HELP OF HER HUSBAND, JOHN ZANFT, WHO WAS A
                               & PERFUME  FORMER VP OF FOX STUDIOS.  SEVERAL DESIGNERS JOINED HER - NORMAN
                                        NORELL & MADINE EFFRONT.  MANY OF HATTIE'S DESIGNS WERE OUTRAGEOUS
                                      AND FANTASY FILLED WHICH MADE THEM ALL THE MORE POPULAR.  ANOTHER
                                      SIDE OF HER DESIGN ABILITY WAS SOFT AND ROMANTIC WITH DELICATE
                                   CRYSTALS AND STONES. HATTIE PASSED AWAY IN 1956 AT THE AGE OF 70 AND
                                    IN 1965 RIGHTS TO HER JEWELRY LINE WERE SOLD TO LARRY JOSEPHS WHO
                                 CONTINUED WITH THE PRODUCTION UNTIL THE 70'S. OTHER MARKS FOR
          HATTIE CARNEGIE WERE - "DREGA" C.1965;
                                     HER "CARTE BLANCHE" PERFUME BOTTLES ARE UNIQUE AND COLLECTIBLE.
                                   THEY HAVE A WOMANS HEAD AS THE STOPPER.  THE HAIR IS IN ROLLED CURLS.
                                  THE LARGER BOTTLE IS CLEAR GLASS WITH THE RAISED NAME ACCENTED WITH
                                GOLD. THE SMALLER BOTTLE IS ENTIRELY COVERED WITH THE GOLD PAINT.


CARNELIAN      * VARIETY OF CHALCEDONY QUARTZ, DISTINGUISHED BY ITS RED/BROWNISH
   COLOR.  IT WAS ORIGINALLY NAMED "CORNELIAN" BUT CHANGED IN THE 15TH
   CENTURY.  IT IS ACTUALLY DERIVED FROM THE LATIN WORD "CORNUM"      MEANING "CORNEL BERRY". CARNELIAN WAS A
   FAVORITE OF THE VICTORIANS.
   IT IS THE ALTERNATE BIRTHSTONE FOR JULY AND IS ASTROGICALLY IN THE  HOUSE OF VIRGO.  THE EGYPTIANS USED
   CARNELIAN EXTENSIVELY AS A  TALISMAN AND IN ORNAMENTATION.  AS A TALISMAN IT WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE THE POWER
  TO DRIVE AWAY EVIL. IT WAS BELIEVED TO PRESERVE LIFE AND IS MENTIONED IN THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD.  IT IS   SAID THAT NAPOLAON CARRIED A CARNELIAN WITH HIM DURING HIS CAMPAIGN IN EUROPE.  A RING OF CARNELIAN WAS THOUGHT TO MAKE A MAN  PEACEFUL AND SLOW TO ANGER BUT DIGNIFIED IN A DISPUTE. THE CARNELIAN STONE TODAY EXPRESSES WARMTH AND FRIENDLINESS AND LOVE OF LIFE.


CAROL      * TRADEMARK USED BY MARK HENFIELD & SONS, CLEVELAND OH SINCE 1953

CAROL ANTELL        *  JEWELRY COMPANY IN NEW YORK SINCE 1943

CAROL-DEB              * TRADEMARK USED BY CAROL DEB COMPANY, PAWTUCKET RI SINCE 1949

CAROL WESTLAKE      *  JEWLERY COMPANY, CINCINNATI, OH SINCE 1954

CARON      *PARIS, FRANCE; C.1906; "BAL AMOUR", "NUIT D'NOEL" "BELLODGIA"

CAROUSEL      *  TRADEMARK USED BY BEMEX CORP. UNION NJ SINCE 1955

CARRACA          *  TRADEMARK USED BY COHN AND ROSENBERGER, INC. NY SINCE 1940

CARRE SET      *  REFERS TO A ROUND STONE SET IN A SQUARE SETTING.

CARRYALL      *REFERS TO PURSE/COSMETIC CASE COMBINATION.

CARSTA          *   JEWLERY COMPANY IN PROVIDENCE, RI FROM 1946


    CARTIER  *JEWELRY SHOP FOUNDED IN 1847 BY LOUIS FRANCOIS CARTIER AS A SMALL SHOP IN PARIS.
    THE LONDON BRANCH WAS OPENED IN 1902 AND THE NEW YORK BRANCH IN 1903.
    THEY ARE CREDITED WITH MAKING THE FIRST WRISTWATCH C. 1904.
    BUSINESS PASSED FROM 4 GENERATIONS UNTIL IT BECAME PUBLIC OWNERSHIP IN THE
    EARLY 1960'S. CLAUDE CARTIER (DIED 1975) WAS THE LAST CARTIER TO HEAD THE COMPANY.

    MARK LFC - IN A DIAMOND SHAPED SHIELD
              AC - WITH A HATCHET GRAPHIC



CARTIER      *PERFUMERY, PARIS, FRANCE; 1981; "PANTHERE"

CARTIER      "NY NY; C.1925; "LILAC",
  (DERMANY INC)

CARTOUCHE      *A TABLET USUALLY DECORATED AND ENGRAVED WITH LETTERS OR SYMBOLS

CARVING      *TO CARVE. CREATE OR DECORATE A FORM OR DECORATION BY CUTTING
   INTO, WHITTLING ON, SCRAPING, HOLLOWING OUT, ETC.

CASEIN  *A TYPE OF PLASTIC MADE OF SOLID MILK PROTEIN ALSO CALLED GALALITH.

CASINO  * TRADEMARK USED BY JOSEPH H. MEYER BROS. NY SINCE 1945

CASSANDRA  *  TRADEMARK USED BY CASTLECLIFF, INC. NY SINCE 1957

CASSANDRE (ADOLPHE MOURON) *1901-1968. BORN IN RUSSIA AND DESIGNED JEWELRY FOR GEORGES FOUQUET
   IN THE MID 1920'S.

CAST  * JEWELRY MAKING TECHNIQUE

CASTELLANI,FORTUNATO 1793-1865.    EXQUISITE ARTISAN AND DESIGNER OF GOLD JEWELRY. HIS WORK
                                                                             WAS CARRIED ON BY HIS TWO SONS ALESSANDRO AND AUGUSTO.
                                                                FORTUNATO WAS KNOWN FOR HIS ETRUSCAN AND GREEK REVIVAL JEWELRY
                                                                 WHICH WERE KNOWN AS "ITALIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL JEWELRY". EXAMPLES OF
                                                             THEIR DESIGNS ARE IN MUSEUMS ALL OVER THE WORLD.

CASTILLO, LOS  * JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY THE CASTILLO BROTHERS IN ONE OF TAXCO'S
     LARGEST SILVER SHOPS. MARK USED 1930 - PRESENT. THEY USED STERLING
     SILVER WITH INLAYS AND COMBINATIONS WITH COPPER AND BRASS - ALSO
     ENAMELS.  HIGHEST QUALITY MEXICAN DESIGNED JEWELRY BRINGING TOP
     PRICES.

CASTLE      *  TRADEMARK USED BY J.R.WOOD & SONS NY SINCE 1931

CASTLECLIFF                              *  JEWELRY MARK USED BY CLIFFORD FURST C.1945 - 1970.  THEIR PIECES ARE
                                                         GOOD   QUALITY WITH SOMETIMES BOLD DESIGNS AND LARGE UNUSUAL STONES.
                                                       IT WAS SOLD IN THE FINEST STORES BEING OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY. MUCH
                                                     IN DEMAND IS THE MYTHOLOGICAL HORSE BRACELET.

CASWELL MASSEY      *NY NY, C.1958; "NUMBER 6" - TRUE FRAGRANCES/FLORALS COSMETICS

CAT'S EYE   * USUALLY REFERS TO THE TRANSLUCENT HONEY COLOR STONE CHRYSOBERYL
     WHICH HAS A LINE OF LIGHT THROUGH THE STONE THAT FLASHES WHEN
     TURNED MUCH LIKE THE STAR SAPPHIRE.  WHEN THIS SAME OPTICAL
     EFFECT IS FOUND IN GREY-BLUE QUARTZ IT IS REFERRED TO AS FALCON'S
     EYE.

CATCH  *ANY TYPE OF FASTENER

CATHE  * CATHE JEWELS, INC. TORRENCE, CA. SINCE 1961

CAVALIER  * TRADEMARK USED BY DOLAN & BULLOCK, PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1954


CAVINESS, ALICE                                      *JEWELRY DESIGNER C.1940-1965. SHE BEGAN IN THE FASHION GARMANT
                                                               BUSINESS   AND CARRIED OVER HER ARTISTIC FLAIR AND IMAGINATION INTO HER
                                                             JEWELRY. ALWAYS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY AND HIGHLY COLLECTIBLE WHEN
                                                             FOUND.  SOMETIMES, ESPECIALLY ON EARRINGS, "ALICE" WAS THE ONLY MARK.
                                                             SHE LOVED THE FEMININE BEAD AND PEARL COLLAGES SO POPULAR DURING
                                                                   THIS PERIOD.  ALL HAND WIRED WITH CREATIVE CARE HER DESIGNS WILL ALWAYS
                         BE AMONG THE MOST DESIRED.


CAVU                       *  COMPANY IN DOWNEY, CA. SINCE 1945


CECILE                                          *  TRADEMARK USED BY STEIN & ELLGOGEN CO., CHICAGO SINCE 1925

CHEEVER, TWEEDY & CO., INC   *   JEWELRY MFG. ATTLEBORO, MA SINCE 1945 USED TRADEMARK CEETEE

CELESTE                         *  TRADEMARK FOR CHINA OVERSEAS, NY SINCE 1945

CELLINI, BENVENUTO   * 1500-71. CELEBRATED JEWELRY ARTISAN AND DESIGNER OF RENAISSANCE
                                   PERIOD.  EXTENSIVE USE OF ENAMEL AND PEARLS.

CELLINI  *  TRADEMARK OF AUTOMATIC GOLD CHAIN COMPANY, PROVIDENCE, R. FOR
     JEWELRY SINCE 1930.


CELLULOID   *INVENTED BY JOHN WESLEY HYATT IN 1869 PARTLY AS A RESULT OF AN
    INCENTIVE OFFERED BY PHELAN AND COLLANDER, A LARGE AMERICAN
    BILLIARD SUPPLY COMPANY, TO FIND A A REPLACEMENT FOR THE RISING
    COST OF IVORY WHICH WAS USED TO MAKE BILLIARD BALLS!  CELLULOID
    IS ACTUALLY THE TRADE NAME FOR "SEMISYNTHETIC PYROXYLIN-CAMPHOR
    THERMOPLASTIC.  IT WAS USED FOR EVERYTHING FROM BUTTONS, JEWELRY
    AND DRESSER ACCESSORIES TO  TOYS AND BILLIARD BALLS. CELLULOID IS
    HIGHLY FLAMABLE AND WILL CRACK AND/OR DARKEN WITH AGE. THE GASES
    GIVEN OFF BY DETERIORATING CELLULOID CAME DAMAGE OTHER PIECES
    SO CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO STORE IT SEPARATELY. A "HOT PIN" TEST
    CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE CELLULOID.  iT HAS A STRONG CAMPHOR
    ODOR.  IF THE PIN TEST COULD POSSIBLY CAUSE DAMAGE YOU CAN ALSO
    GET A NOT QUITE SO STRONG ODOR BY JUST  IMMERSING THE ITEM IN A
    SHALLOW BOWL OF HOT STEAMING WATER.  A WORD OF CAUTION THOUGH,
    A LATER FORM CELLULOID (LUMARITH) WILL SMELL OF VINEGAR BUT WILL
    BE DAMAGED FROM A TOO LONG IMMERSION IN THE HOT WATER.  TO CLEAN
    CELLULOID, USE VEGETABLE OIL OR SOAPY WATER. ANOTHER METHOD  I
    HAVE USED WITH SUCCESS IS "ARMOR ALL" USED FOR CLEANING VINYL IN
    CARS.  NEVER USE A SOLVENT SUCH AS NAIL POLISH REMOVER, ETC.


CELTIC   * REFERS TO JEWELRY ASSOCIATED WITH SCOTLAND, IRELAND, WALES
     AND BRITTANY THAT BECAME POPULAR DURING THE VICTORIAN PERIOD
     WITH QUEEN VICTORIA'S LOVE OF THE DESIGNS AND STONES.  SOME OF
     THE DESIGNS WERE BASED ON THE ST. ANDREW'S CROSS.  CAIRNGORM,
     AMETHYST AND PEARLS FROM SCOTLAND WERE USED AS WELL AS THE
     COLORFUL AGATES. OTHER ITEMS POPULAR IN CELTIC JEWELRY INCLUDE
           BROACHES(PINS) HEAVY NECKPIECES OF TWISTED AND DECORATIVE METAL
            CALLED "TORQUES", EAR CLASPS, BRACELETS, ETC. OTHER POPULAR MOTIFS
                INCORPORATE ELABORATE KNOTWORK DESIGNS WHICH HAVE AN ART
     NOUVEAU LOOK.  "MIRACLE" IS A JEWELRY MFG. THAT PRODUCES QUALITY
      REPO. OF THIS TYPE OF JEWELRY.

CELTIC KNOT   *INTERLACED MOTIF USED IN CELTIC JEWELRY ALSO CALLED ENTRELAC.
      STYLE WAS REVIVED BY THE BRITISH ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT.


CEPKA, ANTON   *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1936 IN SULEKOVO, CZECH.

CERAMIC    *ANY TYPE OF FIRED POTTERY - FAIENCE, TERRACOTTA, EARTHENWARE,
     STONEWARE, PORCELAIN, RAKU.

CERAMIC TRANSFER                       *A COMPLICATED TECHNICAL PROCEDURE WHERE DESIGNS ARE ENGRAVED ON
                                                           COPPER PLATE, THEN INKED AND THE IMPRESSION IS TRANSFERED TO A PIECE
                                                                 OF TISSUE PAPER, THEN A GAIN TRANSFERED TO A PIECE OF PORCELAIN TO BE
                                          DECORATED OR HAND PAINTED.  A PERMANENT G LAZE IS APPLIED,
                                                                 FIRED IN THE KILN AND UNLESS IT IS SCRATCHED IT RETAINS THE ORIGINAL
                                                                DESIGN INTACT.  THESE WERE APPLIED NOT ONLY TO PORCELAIN TABLEWARE,
                                  BUT TO BROOCHES, HATPINS, ETC.

CERDA, FULCO SANTOSTEFANO DELLA      *ORIGINALLY FROM SICILY. BEGAN HIS CAREER AS A TEXTILE DESIGNER FOR CHANEL.
   HE EVENTUALLY BECAME THE CHIEF JEWELRY DESIGNER. HE DESIGNED PIECES SUCH AS
   THE CHANEL CHESSMEN, HUMMINGBIRDS AND COATS OF ARMS JEWELRY.

CERTIFIED                           *TRADEMARK USED BY KATZ & OGUSH, INC. NY SINCE 1923

CEZANNE                           * TRADEMARK USED BY JOSEPH H. MEYER BROS., NY SINCE 1957


CHA CHA                                             *  TRADEMARK FOR JOSEPH O. MORRISSEY DAMBALA CO., ST. LOUIS, MO.    SINCE 1959.

CHAI NS            *SERIES OF LINKS OF VARIOUS SIZES EITHER ALL OF LINE SIZE OR MIXED AND FASTENED ONE TO
                              THE OTHER MAKING A "CHAIN". MOST POPULAR WAS THE NECKCHAIN WITH A CLASP TO
                              ATTACH  A PENDANT, WATCH, LOCKET, ETC.  WHEN QUEEN VICTORIA MARRIED ALBERT IN 1849
                             THERE WAS IMMEDIATELY A CHAIN NAMED FOR HIM THE "ALBERT" CHAIN WHICH WAS FIXED WITH
                             A   LAPEL BAR ON ONE END AND A SWIVEL OR TONGUE AT THE OTHER END AND DRAPED ACROSS
                             THE CHEST.  A SIMILAR WORD IS "FESTOON". A "VICTORIA" OR "QUEEN" CHAIN WAS MUCH
                             SHORTER AND USUALLY HAD SEVERAL CHARMS DANGLING FROM IT. OVER THE CENTURIES
                             CHAINS HAVE PROBABLY BEEN THE  MOST VERSITILE JEWELRY ITEM. MADE IN A VARIETY OF
                             METALS, PRECIOUS AND PLAIN. THE VEST  CHAIN WAS POPULARIZED BY CHARLES DICKENS    WHEN
                             THE FIRST VISITED AMERICA AND PROPERLY CALLED THE "DICKENS VEST CHAIN".  THE FIRM
                             OF HAMILTON AND  HAMILTON IN PROVIDENCE, RI   CLAIMED TO BE THE FIRST MAKER OF GOLD
                             FILLED 0 CHAINS IN  AMERICA.  CHAINS STILL ENJOY A GREAT POPULARITY TODAY IN FASHION AND
                             ACCESSORIES.

CHALCEDONY*THE GENERIC TERM FOR SEMI PRECIOUS STONES SUCH AS QUARTZ, AGATE,
                             CORNELIAN, JASPER, ETC.  "SARD" IS ALSO A MEMBER OF THE FAMILY AND
                             HAS A BROWN/RED COLOR AS DOES "SARDONYX".  IT IS NAMED AFTER THE
                             GREEK SEAPORT CHALCEDON.

CHALET                                              *TRADEMARK OF MAX PERSCHEK, NY SINCE 1929

CHAMELEON FINISH                           *  FINISH THAT REFLECTION THE LIGHT - USUALLY DONE WITH LACQUER.

CHAMFERED                           *HAVING BEZELED OR CUT CORNERS.

CHAMPION                           * TRADEMARK OF TAUNTON PEARL WORKS, INC., MA. SINCE 1921

CHAMPLEVE                                       *ENAMEL DECORATION MADE BY POURING THE ENAMEL INTO CUT RECESSES IN  THE BASE METAL
                                                           AND THEN   FIRING.  SEE ENAMELING.

CHAN, KAI                           *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1940 IN CHINA.

CHANEL, GABRIELLE                   *"COCO" AS HER FRIENDS CALLED HER WILL ALWAYS BE REMEMBERED AND ASSOCIATED AS A
   (1883-1971)                                      TRUE  INDIVIDUALIST WITH A "GAMINLIKE" QUALITY  UNSURPASSED IN THE FASHION WORLD.
                                                           SHE IS REMEMBERED   FOR MANY OF HER DESIGNS - THE SLIM BLACK SUIT WITH FLOPPY BOW
JEWELRY                                         TIE, HER PERFUME CHANEL NO. 5 (INCIDENTLY, NAMED AFTER HER BIRTHDATE)  AND HER
                                                           CLASSICAL JEWELRY DESIGNS.
1914-1939                                         SHE WAS FASCINATED BY THE COSTUME JEWELRY FIELD WHERE A   WOMAN COULD WEAR
                                                          FORTUNES  THAT  COST NOTHING! HER CHANEL PEARLS WILL WITHSTAND ANY TREND  CHANGES
                                                          THAT COME ALONG.  ORIGINAL CHANEL JEWELRY ITEMS CONTINUE TO  SKYROCKET IN PRICE
                                                          WHILE CHEAPER REPRODUCTIONS REMAIN JUST THAT. HER DESIGNS WILL CONTINUE TO
                                                          INSPIRE THE  DESIGNERS OF TOMORROW.  THE MARK CONTINUES IN USE TODAY.
                                                          COCO TRULY BELIEVED THAT "IMITATION IS THE SINCEREST FORM OF FLATTERY" AND HER
                                                          JEWELRY REFLECTED THIS. CHANEL ALSO DESIGNED SOME DIAMOND JEWELRY FOR THE
                                                          INTERNATIONAL GUILD OF DIAMOND MERCHANTS. COUNT ETIENNE DE BEAUMONT AND DUCA
                                                          DE VERDUCI ALSO DESIGNED JEWELRY FOR CHANEL. KARL LAGERFELD IS NOW THE DESIGNER
                                                          FOR THE HOUSE OF CHANEL.  HER MOST KNOWN DESIGNS WHICH REMAIN IN FASHION TODAY
                                                         ARE - THE 3 PIECE SUIT, THE LITTLE-NOTHING SHORT EVENING DRESS, TAILORED LONG DRESS
                                                         AND THE MOLTEN GLASS AND PEARL JEWELRY SET IN HEAVY GILT WITH CHAINS. SHE TRULY
                                                         TRANSCENDED ALL GENERATIONS, AGES AND TYPES OF WOMEN WEARING HER DESIGNS.
 

CHANNEL SETTING                            *  ROW OF EQUAL SIZED SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR STONES FITTED INTO A CHANNEL TO
                                                             HOLD THEM IN PLACE.

CHAPLET                           *STRING OF BEADS WORN ON THE HEAD OR A SMALL ROSARY.

CHAPLET                           *TYPE OF HEAD ORNAMENT IN THE FORM OF A GARLAND, WREATH OR BAND.

CHARITY  *PENDANT DEPICTING A FIGURE GROUP OF CHARITY WITH 2 OR 3 CHILDREN SOMETIMES
                      PENDANT   TOGETHER WITH HER  TWO SISTERS - FAITH AND HOPE.

CHARBERT  *NY NY; 1945; "WARNING"

CHAREL  *JEWELRY CO., BROOKLYN NY SINCE 1945

CHARLES OF THE RITZ *NY NY; C.195; "AN ENGLISH GARDEN", - ALSO COSMETIC MFG.

CHARLOTTE  *TYPE OF EMBROIDERY BEADS THAT ARE FACETED ON THE OUTSIDE

CHARLOTTE  *TRADEMARK OF GEMEX COMPANY, NJ FOR WATCH BRACELETS, BELT BUCKLES,
                             ETC. SINCE 1920.

CHARM  *SEVERAL MEANINGS; THE OLDEST IS THAT OBJECT WITH A MAGICAL PROPERTY
                   OR A SORT OF TALISMAN. NOW USED TO DESCRIBE ORNAMENTS THAT HAVE THE
                   THE ABILITY TO DANGLE FROM A CHAIN OR OTHER ORNAMENT SINGLY OR IN
                   MULTIPLES, SUCH AS IN A CHARM BRACELET.

CHARM CASE  *HOLLOW PENDANT OR CASE THAT CONTAINS A CHARM OR  OTHER PRECIOUS
                              CHARM.

CHARM GIRL  *TRADEMARK USED BY ORIGINALITIES OF NEW YORK, INC., LONG ISLAND FOR
                            CHILDREN'S JEWELRY SINCE 1953

CHARM STRING  *AN ORNAMENTAL NECKLACE/BELT MADE OF BUTTONS STRUNG TOGETHER.
                                   POPULAR DURING THE 1880'S .

CHARMBELS  * TRADEMARK USED BY ASSOCIATED MFG. PROVIDENCE USING PRECIOUS OR
                              SEMI PRECIOUS METALS SINCE 1945

CHARMERS  * TRADEMARK OF CORO, INC. NY SINCE 1959

CHASING  * METHOD OF DECORATING THE SURFACE OF METAL BY THE USE OF PUNCHES  AND A HAMMER.


CHATELAINE  *CLASP OR HOOK FROM WHICH WAS HUNG ALL MANNER OF HOUSEHOLD ITEMS AND NECESSITIES;
                                   WATCHES, THIMBLES, SCISSORS, KEYS, CHARMS, PERFUME, CLIPS, ETC. THE WORD IS FROM THE
                         FRENCH MEANING "MISTRESS OF THE CASTLE" AND THE EARLIEST WERE MOST CERTAINLY
                         USEFUL FOR SUCH A PERSON.  AFTER THE 17TH CENTURY CHATELAINES BECAME MORE OF A
                                       DECORATIVE JEWELRY ITEM THAN UTILITARIAN AND OFTEN CONTAINED WHIMSICAL ITEMS. SOME
                              WERE  MAGNIFICANT AND ELABORATELY DECORATED.  THE WORD IS ALSO USED TO MEAN THE
                           HOOK PLUS ITS PENDANTS. THEY WERE MADE OF PINCHBECK, GOLD, SILVER AND CUT STEEL.

CHATELAINE *VANITY CASE FOR CHATELAINES THAT CAME IN MANY SHAPES AND SIZES.  THEY FREQUENTLY
                            CASE  CONTAINED PUFF BOXES, THE PUFF, PINS, MIRROR AND DECORATED WITH ENAMEL.  SOME WERE
               EVEN SET WITH GEMS SIMILAR TO THE ONES IN THE ACTUAL CHATELAINE.  IT WAS A COMBINED
                  BEAUTY AND UTILITY WHICH APPEALED TO A LADY'S ARTISTIC SENSE WHILE SERVING HER NEEDS
  FOR STORING THESE ITEMS.


CHATHAM           *SYNTHETIC EMERALDS DEVELOPED BY CARROLL CHATHAM IN SAN FRANCISCO IN 1935.  THEY
                             HAVE  EMERALDS THE SAME S TRUCTURE, BUT ARE MORE BLUE GREEN IN COLOR AND TEND TO
                             HAVE WISPY BLACK SPOTS AND VEILLIKE INCLUSIONS. UNDER BLACK LIGHT THEY FLORESCE RED
                              IN THE LONG WAVE AND YELLOW ORANGE TO OLIVE GREEN IN THE SHORT WAVE BEAM.  NATURAL
                                  EMERALDS DO NOT FLORESCE OR AT BEST SHOW A VERY DULL DARK RESPONSE, SO A BLACK
                              LIGHT WILL EASILY DISTINGUISH A CHATHAM EMERALD FROM THE REAL THING.

CHATON  *FRENCH TERM FOR "BEZEL" I.E. ORNAMENT AT THE TOP OF A FINGER RING. ALSO MEANING A
                      FACETED GLASS  ROUND STONE BACKED WITH FOIL USUALLY ROUND WITH A POINTED BACK.

CHATOYANCY      *PLAY OF LIGHT LIKE IN A CAT'S EYE OR ANY GEMSTONE. ANOTHER TERM FOR THIS IS SCHILLER.

CHATOYANT  * STONES SHOWING THIS INLCUDE CAT'S EYE, MOONSTONES, STAR STONES, ETC. AND ARE
   ALWAYS CUT EN CABOCHON.

CHAUMET & CIE       *ONE OF LEADING FRENCH JEWELRY FIRMS FOUNCED IN 1780 BY ETIENNE NITOT.
    THEY WERE COMMISSIONED TO MAKE NAPOLEON'S CORONATION CROWN AND SWORD
    AND ALSO THE WEDDING JEWELRY FOR MARIE LOUISE IN 1810. THEY WERE POPULAR
    FOR THEIR ART DECO DESIGNS.

CHAVIN   *JEWELRY AND OBJECTS OF PRE COLUMBIAN ORIGINA FROM PERU MADE DURING THE
                                    PERIOD  OF THE CHAVIN  CULTURE CIRCA 900-500 BC.

CHENIER  * FINE FOLLOW TUBE USED FOR THE "MECHANICS" OF JEWELRY SUCH AS HINGES, CATCHES,  JOINTS, ETC.

CHERAMY  * PERFUMER - NY NY; C.1920; "BIARRITZ"

CHERRY OPAL         *REDDISH COLORED VARIETY OF OPAL.

CHERUB     *DIMPLED, UNCLOTHED FIGURE OF THE RENAISSANCE, BAROQUE AND ROCOCO PERIODS
                           USED IN ORNAMENTATION. MOST OFTEN WINGED. IF UNWINGED, THE FIGURE IS REFERRED
                                     TO AS PUTTI.  IF CARRYING A BOW AND ARROW THE FIGURE IS CALLED "CUPID". THESE FIGURES
                      ARE SAID TO BE A REPRESENTATION OF EROS, THE GREEK GOD OF LOVE.  THIS STYLE
  ORNAMENTATION WAS MUCH LOVED AND USED BY THE VICTORIANS.

CHERUBIN  * TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. NY SINCE 1956

CHESS, MARY  * PERFUMER - NY NY; C.1930'S; "CHESSMEN"

CHEVRON           *TYPE OF TRADE BEAD ORIGINALLY vENETIAN USUALLY RED, WHITE AND BLUE
                           WITH CONICAL GROUND DOWN ENDS. ALSO CALLED PATERNOSTER, ROSET
    STAR BEAD. THE PATTERN IS USED IN OTHER ORNAMENTATION.
                             *FRENCH FOR "RAFTER" IN ORNAMENT A ZIG ZAG DESIGN OR MOLDING OR A
                                                   CONTINUOUS LINE OF "V'S".     FREQUENTLY USED IN NORMAN AND GOTHIC  DESIGNS.

CHEZ LINDELLE  * TRADEMARK FOR LOUIS KIPNIS & SONS, INC. NEW YORK SINCE 1949

CHI CHI  * TRADEMARK FOR DAVETTE PRODUCTS, INC. JEWELRY SINCE 1955

CHICKEN-BONE JADE     *TYPE OF NEPHRITE (JADE) THAT AS A RESULT OF HAVING BEEN BURIED IN SAND LOSES  DEEP
SATURATION AND RESULTING IN AN OUTER BROWNISH SKIN.

CHICOT PEARL   *SAME AS A BLISTER PEARL.

CHIFFON  * JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR MARVELLA, INC. NY SINCE 1951 FAMOURS FOR PEARLS

CHINESE ART SYMBOLS * CLICK HERE

CHINESE CHARACETER CHART * CLICK HERE

CHINESE JADE                                         *MISNOMER FOR GREEN AVENTURINE QUARTZ OR FOR JADEITE WHICH IS   CARVED IN
                                                                  CHINA BUT NOT MADE  THERE.

CHINESE KEY                                           *DESIGN OF GEOMETRIC FORM SIMILAR TO THE GREEK KEY.

CHINOISERIE                                             *CHINESE TYPE OR CHINESE LIKE DECORATIVE MOTIFS, GAY, PICTURESQUE.

CHIRIQUI                   *ARTICLES/JEWELRY OF PRE COLUMBIAN MADE IN CHIRIQUI REGION WHICH IS   NOW THE
                                  BORDER OF COSTA RICA   AND PANAMA. CIRCA 1858-60

CHOICE                     *A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE ABOVE AVERAGE CONDITION - BETTER THAN USUAL.

CHOKER                    *A CLOSE, TIGHT FITTING NECKLACE - A NECKLACE JUST LONG ENOUGH TO CIRCLE THE
                                          THROAT   POPULAR IN  VICTORIAN TIMES WAS A SINGLE SLIM RIBBON AROUND THE
                                             THROAT  OF GROSGRAIN OR VELVET. TO THE  RIBBON WS ADDED A  BROOCH
                                          EITHER CENTER OF  OFF CENTER DETERMINED BY THE PARTICULAR   FASHION OF
                                             THE  DAY. CHOKERS  HAVE  BEEN POPULAR FOR OVER 100 YEARS AND ARE MADE
                                          USING MANY OTHER MATERIALS OTHER THAN THE RIBBON.  POPULAR DURING THE
                                                  ART DECO PERIOD WERE SILVER CHAINS SOME WITH BAKELITE ACCENTS.

CHRISTIAN LA CROIX      *CONTEMPOTARY JEWELRY DESIGNER - BOLD QUALITY DESIGNS.

CHRISTY M.      *JEWELRY MFG. NEW YORK SINCE 1946.
   DELMAS

CHRYSOBERYL     *GEM FAMILY POPULAR IN VICTORIAN TIMES. I.E. CAT'S EYE, ALEXANDRITE, AND   GEM
                                 CHRYSOBERYL, AN  ASPARAGUS GREEN CLEAR STONE SOMETIMES WRONGLY
                                   CALLED   OLIVINE.

CHRYSOPRASE     *APPLE GREEN DYED CHALCEDONY. IT HAS A CLOUD LIKE RATHER THAN BRILLIANT   COLOR.
                                IT WAS VERY  POPULAR IN ART N0UVEAU AND ART DECO PERIODS. IT IS SOMETIMES MISTAKEN
                                FOR JADE. THE NAME COMES FROM THE GREEK "CHRYSOS" MEANING GOLDEN AND "PRASE"
                              MEANING LEEK. 11TH CENTURY BYZENTINE MANUSCRIPT OF MICHAEL PSELLIUS RELATES THAT
                              CHRYSOPRASE WAS USED FOR HEALING IN VISION AND TO RELIEVE INTERNAL PAIN.

CHURRIGUERSQUE        *BOLD AND MASSIVE SPANISH BAROQUE STYLE OF THE 17TH CENTURY.

CHUTE, A LA,        *CLASSICAL TYPE OF NECKLACE OF PEARLS IN THE FORM OF A SINGLE STRAND 42 CM
                                LONG OF GRADUATED PEARLS.



CINDERELLA  * JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR BLANCHARD a& COMPAN, INC., NY SINCE 1928

CINER   *JEWELRY DESIGNER, NEW YORK  SINCE 1892. FOUNDED BY EMANUEL CINER.
1892-PRESENT           THEY USED SWAROVSKI RHINESTONES AND GOLD PLATING IN MOST DESIGNS.
                                   THE LINE IS STILL OPERATED BY THE FAMILY AND SOME OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGNS
                                   ARE STILL BEING MADE.  HIGH QUALITY WITH EACH PIECE SIGNED "CINER".

CINERAMIC              *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ANSON IN PROVIDENCE RI FOR MENS JEWLERY SINCE  1952

CINI   *JEWELRY DESIGNER USEING STERLING 1922-1970. OTHER JEWELRY FROM 1993-PRESENT
                                  IN THE 1940'S CINI PRESENTED A ZODIAC LINE IN STERLING THAT WAS VERY POPULAR.

CINNABAR           *THE ONLY IMPORTANT ORE OF MERCURY. IT IS BRILLIINT REL OR VERMILION MINERAL  WHICH IS
                              USED AS A RED   PIGMENT. MOST POPULAR IN CHINA THE COLOR WAS OFTEN REFERRED TO
                              AS "DRAGON'S BLOOD". IT IS HIGHLY PRIZED BY CHINESE ARTISANS  WHO USE IT FOR DYING
                              INLAY WORK FOR JEWELRY AND OTHER  ORNAMENTATION.

CIPHER               * INTERTWINED MONOGRAM

CIPRA                   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY DICKSON MFG., PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1946

CIRCA, CA. C.     *USED WITH A DATE TO DESIGNATE THE APPROXIMATE YEAR AN ITEM WAS USED,  INVENTED OR
                          IN FASHION. IN   JEWELRY CIRCA USUALLY MEANS APPROXIMATELY 10 YEARS ON EITHER
                          SIDE OF THE DATE GIVEN.

CIRCLE               *GEOMETRIC "BULLSEYE" USED BY OSTSBY AND BARTON AS A JEWELRY TRADEMARK SINCE 1914.

CIRCLET              *HEAD ORNAMENT IN THE FORM OF A COMPLETE CIRCLE WORN ABOVE THE BROW AND
                            SLIGHTLY TILTED BACK. POPULAR IN THE VICTORIAN PERIOD.

CIRE PERDUE      *MEANING LOST WAX - ANCIENT PROCESS OF CASTING JEWELLRY OR SMALL ITEMS THAT
   (FRENCH)         WILL BE DISPLAYED "IN THE ROUND". THE METHOD WAS PROBABLY FIRST USED IN
                            EGYPT AROUND THE XII DYNASTY.  THIS METHOD IS STILL USED.

CIRO             * NY NY; C.1920'S; "ACCLAIM". THEIR PERFUME "BOUQUET ANTIQUE" WAS
                             BOTTLED IN A BLACK ENAMEL BOTTLE DECORATED WITH A FLORAL STOPPER.

CIRO                   *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CIRO PEARLS LIMITED, LONDON, ENGLAND (BOND ST.) SINCE 1917
                           ALSO "CIRO OF BOND STREET", NEW YORK SINCE THE 1920'S

CIROLITE             *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CIRO OF BOND STREET, NEW YORK SINCE 1970

CITRINE               *CRYSTALLINE VARIETY OF QUARTZ WITH A VARYING COLOR FROM YELLOW TO
              REDDISH ORANGE.  POPULAR DURING THE VICTORIAN PERIOD IT WAS SOMETIMES MISTAKEN
                           FOR TOPAZ. THE WORD CITRINE WAS DERIVED FROM THE FRENCH WORD FOR LEMON -
                           CITRON. IT    WAS ONCE CARRIED AS A TALISMAN PROTECTING AGAINST PLAGUE EPIDEMICS AND
                           EVIL  THOUGHTS.  IT WAS ALSO USED TO PROTECT AGAINST SNAKES, REPTILES AND INSECTS.


CLAIROL            * TRADMARK OF CLAIROL, INC. NY AND USED ON THEIR JEWELRY SINCE 1962

CLASPER          * JEWLERY TRADEMARK OF EISENSTADT MFG. CO., ST.LOUIS, MO SINCE MARCH 1923.


CLASPS            *FASTENING DEVICES. THE "PUSH-IN" TYPE IS THE OLDEST FORM OF CLASP ON   A BRACELET OR
                          NECKLACE.   BROOCH CLASPS HAD SIMPLE HOOKS UNDER WHICH A  PIN SHANK WAS HELD IN
                          PLACE. EVENTUALLY SAFETY  CATCHES WERE ADDED. THE  "BALL CLASP" SAFETY CONSISTS OF A
                          3/4 CIRCLE WITH A SMALL LEVER TYPE  TAB  WHICH COMPLETES THE ROUND AND SECURELY
                           LOCKS THE BROOCH PIN. IT WAS INNOVATED   IN THE   YEAR 1911. THE "SPRING RING" CLASP IS A
                           TINY CIRCLE WITH A PUSH PIN  ON A SPRING WHICH OPENS AND   SPRINGS SHUT FOR CLOSURE.
                           THIS IS THE MOST COMMON  TYPE OF CLASP DEVICE.  CLASPS WITH A CHAIN  AND PIN SAFETY
                           FEATURE WERE WORN PRIOR TO 1890 WHILE THE SAFETY CLASP WAS AFTER 1900.
                           ORNAMENTAL CLASPS WERE WORN UNTIL THE 1930'S AND THEN CAME THE SIMPLE SCREW
                           BARREL TYPE FOLLOWED BY A CHAIN WITH AN OPEN "FISH HOOK".


CLASSICAL           *MADE IN GREECE DURING CLASSICAL PERIOD FROM AGE OF PERICLES C. 475BC TO 323BC
    JEWELRY           WHEN AFTER  THE CONQUESTS BY ALEXANDER THE GREAT, FOREIGN INFLUNCES   WERE
                             FOUND IN THE GREEK   STYLES AND TECHNIQUES.

CLAUDETTE          *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR PREMIER JEWELRY CO., NEW YORK SINCE 1945

CLAW SETTING     *GEM SETTING THAT HOLDS STONE SECURELY BETWEEN PRONGS. ALLOWS LIGHT TO
                             ENTER FROM THE  BACK OF THE STONE. NEARLY ALL DIAMONDS (EXCEPT PAVE SET)   ARE SET
                             THIS WAY. BECAME  POPULAR IN THE 19TH CENTURY.  HOWEVER, DO NOT HOLD THIS A HARD
                             AND FAST RULE THAT ALL PRECIOUS STONES ARE "OPEN SETTINGS". SOME OLDER JEWELRY
                             CONTAINED CLOSED BACK DIAMONDS AND OTHER PRECIOUS GEMS.

CLEAR GLASS        *GLASS THAT IS TRANSPARENT, SEE THROUGH. NO COLOR.

CLEO  *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CLARENCE EDSON, CLEVELAND, OH FOR JEWELRY W/FAUX
 (SCRIPT MARK)        PEARLS SINCE  1921.

CLEO  *ALSO USED AS A TRADEMARK BY KLEIN & MULLER INC, NY SINCE 1959.

CLEOPATRA  *JEWLERY TRADEMARK USED BY SAMSTAG & HILDER BROS., INC., NEW YORK FOR NOVELTY
   JEWELRY ITEMS SINCE 1922

CLEOPATRA               *MADE BY GEORGES FOQUET FROM A DESIGN BY ALPHONES MUCHA FOR SARAH   BERNHARDT
  BRACELET                 TO WEAR IN HER ROLE AS CLEOPATRA.

CLICK-O                      *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY WM. FISHER , NY FOR CLIP FASTENERS SINCE 1922.

CLICK OF THE             *  TRADEMARK USED BY DAVID GRAD, NY SINCE 1945 FOR JEWELRY.
    MONTH

CLIP    *TYPE OF BROOCH WITH A HINGED BACK INSTEAD OF A CLIP BACK. POPULARIZED IN THE  ART DECO                                 PERIOD UNTIL AROUND 1940. SOME HAD A DOUBLE PRONGED PIN FOR FASTENING INSTEAD OF
     A CLIP. SOME CLIPS WERE REFERRED TO AS "FUR CLIPS", "DRESS CLIPS", ETC. FOR OBVIOUS  REASONS.

CLIP BACK                  *USED TO REFER TO THE FASTENING DEVICE FOR  HOLDING EARRINGS TO THE EAR.

CLIP-EASE     * JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. SINCE 1941

CLIP-MATES     *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY TRIFARI, KURSSMAN AND FISHEL, NY FOR DRESS CLIPS SINCE
     1936.

CLIPPER     *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY TAUNTON PEARL WORKS, MASS. SINCE 1944.

CLIMATEST     *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY FORSTNER CHAIN CORP. NJ SINCE 1949

CLOISONNE  * (KLOI ZO NA) ENAMELING IN WHICH THIN WIRE (SILVER GOLD COPPER OR BRONZE)   WHICH HAS
     BEEN GILDED)   IS BENT TO FORM CELLS (CLOISONS) THEN FILLED  WITH ENAMEL. EACH COLOR
     IS IN A SEPARATE  COMPARTMENT AND EACH COMPART-MENT SEPARATED BY THIN WIRE.
                                    PRIMARILY AN ORIENTAL CRAFT.  MUCH BEAUTIFUL JEWELRY HAS BEEN DESIGNED USING THIS
     METHOD OF ENAMELING. IT WAS ALSO USED  IN MAKING ORNAMENTAL VASES, BOXES AND
                                    SCULPTURES.

CLOSED BACK           *SETTING OF A  STONE WHERE THE BACK OF THE STONE IS COVERED ALLOWING NO LIGHT.
   MOUNTING

CLOUDRIFT     *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR CORO, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1950

CLUTCH         *USUALLY REFERS TO A CARRYALL/PURSE HELD IN THE HAND


COATES, KEVIN     *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1950 IN KINGSTON, ENGLAND

COBB *      JEWELRY MFG. CO. IN PROVIDENCE RI FOR CLASPS, MOUNTINGS, BASES, ETC. IN BUSINESS SINCE 1957.

COCKTAIL SET          *   TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. NY FOR JEWELRY ITEMS MADE WITH PRECIOUS METALS OR
                                    PLATED. USED SINCE 1947

COEUR DE FEU        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR ILLINOIS WATCH CO./ELGIN AMERICAN DIVISION SINCE  1950
                                 USED FOR SIMULATED PEARL JEWELRY.

COFFERET     *SMALL BOX FOR RINGS, SMALL VALUABLES.

COHN &                        *  JEWELRY MFG. COMPANY IN NEW YORK WITH TRADEMARK OF THE FLYING HORSE.
   ROSENBERGER       (SEE ALSO CORO AND NUMEROUS OTHER MARKS)   SINCE 1939

COHN, SUSAN             *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1952 IN AUSTRALIA.

COIN SILVER *ALSO SEE SILVER. COIN SILVER IS 90% SILVER AND 10% OTHER METAL. IT WAS USED MOSTLY
  ON WATCH CASES, FOBS AND SOME JEWELRY ITEMS. THE REASON FOR THE NAME IS THAT
  AT ONE TIME THE CONTENT OF COINS WAS 90%.

COLETT'S *JEWELRY TRADEMARK FOR VINCENT COLETTA, JOHNSTON, R. I. SINCE 1963

COLGATE         *JERSEY CITY NJ; C. 1860'S "ALBA VIOLET", "CASHMERE BOUQUET"
   COSMETIC MFG. - FLORIENT FACE POWDER. 1930'S

COLLAERT, HANS     *1540-1622. DESIGNER OF JEWELRY FROM ANTWERP.

COLLAR BUTTONS     *COLLAR BUTTONS WERE MADE STRONGER THAN SHIRT STUDS. A COLLAR BUTTON  HAD TO
                                  FASTEN THE   COLLAR TIGHTLY AROUND THE THROAT . PARKS BROS.  AND ROGERS IN
                                  PROVIDENCE R.I. WERE   MAKERS OF THE "PARKROGER", THE ORIGINAL  COLLAR BUTTON
                                  IN ONE PIECE. THEY WERE IN MANY   SHAPES AND DESIGNS, SOME  EVEN HAD MASONIC
                                  SYMBOLS. LADIES ALSO MADE USE OF THE  COLLAR BUTTON   AND WORE THEM IN SETS
                                  WITH CUFF BUTTONS. ONE SUCH ERA UTILIZING THE  LADIES  COLLAR BUTTON
                                  EXTENSIVELY WAS THE GIBSON GIRL AND THE SHIRTWAIST.

COLLECTABLES        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY RONALD H. TAUB, CHICAGO, IL. SINCE 1964

COLLEGIATE            *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. SINCE  1940. USED MAINLY FOR COMPACTS, CIG.
                                   CASES. ETC.

COLLET                       *THE SHORT TUBULAR BAND OF METAL THAT ENCLOSES A STONE

COLONIAL                  *FEATURING A COLONIAL LADY IN A CIRCLE - THIS MARK WAS USED BY COLONIAL BEAD CO.
                                   NEW YORK FOR BEADED JEWELRY SINCE 1937.  THE WORD "COLONIAL" WAS ALSO USED
                                   ALONE.

COLONNA, EDWARD   *GERMAN JEWELRY DESIGNER IN THE ART NOUVEAU/DECO PERIOD. WORKED FOR L.C. TIFFANY
                                     HIS MARK IS STAMPED "COLONNA" AND "SANB" INSIDE A DIAMOND FOR HIS MAISON
                                     DE L'ART NOUVEAU JEWELRY DESIGNED IN 1898.

COLOR A LA CARTE    *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. USING PART OR WHOLE PRECIOUS METALS  SINCE 1959.

COLORADO JADE     *NOT JADE BUT AVENTURINE

COLORAMA               *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. NEW YORK SINCE 1954

COLORART                 *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY THE STYLIST SPRAYERS, NEW YORK, SINCE 1955

COLOSSA                  *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MARVELLA PEARLS, NEW YORK SINCE 1958

COLUMBIA                  *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY WALTER DORRER/HIGBEE & DORRER, LOS ANGELES FOR
                                     PEARL JEWELRY  SINCE 1954

COLTURA    *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ARKE, INC., NEW YORK SINCE 1960

COMBS                      *COMBS WERE BOTH FUNCTIONAL AND ORNAMENTAL - MORE ORNAMENTAL AFTER ABOUT
                                    1880. THE GIBSON  GIRL POPULARIZED IT FURTHER IN THE 20'S.  SOME   WERE HIGHLY
                                    DECORATED WITH GEMSTONES, FLOWERS, ETC. NO FASHIONABLE LADY HAD A COMPLETED
                                    WARDROBE WITHOUT A MYRIAD OF COMBS. EARLY COMBS   WERE MADE  OF TORTOISE
                                    SHELL, BONE STERLING, GOLD AND SILVER. BY 1900 IMITATION  MATERIALS WERE
                                     MORE POPULAR. SOME OF THE OLDER MANUFACTURERS WERE NUHORN, TUFF-E-NUF,
                                     STAG, NOYES COMB  CO., BINGHAMPTON NY., SCHARDER AND EHLERS, SADLER BROS WHO
                                     PRODUCED REAL TORTOISE SHELL   COMBS  AS DID WAGNER COMB CO. OF NEW YORK.

COME SUMMER            *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY AVON PRODUCTS, NEW YORK SINCE 1971

COMET                         *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY D.SWAROWSKI & CO., AUSTRIA SINCE 1957

COMMANDO                 *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY MARVEL JEWELRY MFG. FOR EXPANSION BRACELETS SINCE 1942

COMMEM-                    *JEWELRY OR ARTICLES WORN TO COMMEMORATE A PERSON OR OCCASION WITH
      ORATIVE                  APPOPRIATE  DESIGN FOR THE OCCASION.

COMMERCIAL               *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY KATZ & OGUSH, INC. NEW YORK  SINCE 1946

COMMESSO                 *LITTERALLY - JOINED.

COMPACT                    *SMALL, USUALLY HINGED  CASE USED FOR CONTAINING FACE POWDER. USUALLY
     ACCOMPANIED WITH A MIRROR AND SOMETIMES OTHER COMPARTMENTS. ALSO SEE
     "FLAPJACK", "CARRYALL"

COMPOSITION              *A MIXTURE YIELDING A MATERIAL FROM WHICH SOMETHING ELSE IS MADE OTHER THAN
                                     CERAMIC, METAL OR PLASTIC

CONCEITS                    *USED TO REFER TO CURIOUSLY CONTRIVED OR FANCIFUL JEWELRY OR ACCESSORIES                                        WHICH ARE QUAINT OR  HAVE AN AFFECTED CONCEPTION WHICH FLATTERS ONE'S VANITY.
                                     THUS  "CONCEIT". A NECK CONCEIT   (VELVET RIBBON), WAISTLINE CLASP, BUCKLES,  PARASOL
                                     WITH  A HANDLE TO SIMULATE SAY - A GOLF CLUB   OR WHEEL SPIKES. ALSO  CONSIDERED
                                     CONCEITS WERE CHILDREN'S BIB PINS SOMETIMES WITH THE WORD  "BABY"  ENGRAVED ON
                                     IT, CHAMELEON PIN, STERLING ENCASED MUSTACHE COMBS, LADIES HAT   BAND
                                     BUCKLES, STERLING SILVER HAT MARKS,KEY RINGS, UMBRELLA STRAPS, LINGEREE PINS,
                                     TRUNK CHECK  TAGS, ARMLETS OR GARTERS, GLOVE BUTTONERS ETC. ON AND ON
                                      SOMETIMES IN STERLING SILVER OR  GOLD, MOST LIKELY GOLD FILLED.

CONCH PEARL             *VARIETY OF SALT WATER PEARL PRODUCED BY THE UNIVALVE GIANT CONCH   OR HELMET
                                    CONCH. USUALLY  INFERIOR QUALITY FOR PEARLS AND USED FOR CARVING  CAMEOS OR
                                    BEADS.

CONCHA BELT            *BELT MADE BY THE INDIANS IN SOUTH WESTERN UNITED STATES IN FORM OF A WIDE LEATHER
                                   BAND ON WHICH   IS AFFIXED A ROW OF CONVEX DISCS MADE OF SILVER OR SHELL WITH
                                   TURQUOISE.

CONE    *ONE OF THE MOST COMMON BEAD SHAPES

CONNEMARA    *PALE GREEN SERPENTINE FROM iRELAND THAT WAS MADE INTO BEADS AND SOUVENIRS.
   MARBLE

CONSOLIDATED        *CHICAGO, IL; C.1930'S; "BARCELONA", "BODY AND SOUL"
 COSMETICS

CONSTELLATION       *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, INC. NEW YORK SINCE 1946

CONSUELO                *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY GEMEX SINCE 1930

CONTEMPORARY      *JEWELRY REFERS TO ARTICLES MADE SINCE WORLD WAR II, 1945.

CONTESSA                *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ALBION JEWELERS, CHICAGO SINCE 1955 FOR PLATED
                                       JEWELRY.

CONVENTIONALIZATION    *SIMPLIFYING OR EXAGGERATING OF THE NATURAL FORMS.

CONVERTIPEARL          *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY ELMER ELLSWORTH AND SON, TULSA, OK FOR PEARL
                                       JEWELRY - 1955

CONWAY, ROS *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1951 IN BRISTOL, ENGLAND.

COOPER, JOHN PAUL       *ENGLISH JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH IDENTIFIED IN ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVMT.    1869-1933

COPAL                              *NATURAL RESIN FROM CERTAIN TROPICAL TREES OF AFRICA ESPECIALLY   FROM TANZANIA
                                          AND SIERRA LEONE AND ALSO OF NEW ZEALAND. IT IS USED  PRIMARILY FOR JEWELRY IN
                                          THE SAME MANNER AS AMBER, WHICH IT   RESEMBLES,  BUT IS NOT THE SAME.

COPALINE                 *OR COPALITEL - REDDISH RESINOUS SUBSTANCE PROBABLY FROM VEGETABLE
                                 MATTER ALTERED FROM HAVING BEEN IN EARTH. SUBSTITUTED FOR COPAL OR AMBER.

COPELAND,             *FOUNDED METALWARE SHOP IN BOSTON, MASS. 1902-1937 SPECIALIZING IN JEWELRY,
  ELIZABETH             SILVERSMITH,   OCCASIONALLY INCORPORATING SEMIPRECIOUS STONES. SHOPMARK:E.C.

COPLEY, NOMA *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN IN MINNEAPOLIS, MN.

COPPER                    *METALLIC ELEMENT OF RED COLORING BUT IN NATURAL STATE IS GREEN UNTIL   OXIDATION
                                  OCCURS. USED   FROM EARLY CIVILIZATIONS IN MAKING JEWELRY AND   COOKWARE.

COPPERWOOD         *  JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY RENOIR OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES SINCE 1959.

COPPOLA E TOPPO  * ITALIAN JEWELRY DESIGNERS 1940'S - 1980'S. MILAN. DESIGNS CONTAINED BEAUTIFUL BEADS
     CRAFTED IN MURANO. ALSO ACCESSORIES, HANDBAGS, SCARVES, ETC. MOST JEWELRY IS
     MARKED USING THE NAME - A FEW PIECES WERE SIGNED "C e T".

COPTIC                    *MADE BY THE COPTS, AN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SECT ADHERED TO CHRISTIANITY  AND  RESISTED ISLAM IN THE 19TH   AND 20TH CENTURIES. MOST USUAL IS THE   COPTIC CROSS
                                WHICH HAS FOUR EQUAL ARMS AND A CIRCLE AT THE CENTRE  SOMETIMES WITH ELABORATE
                                ORNAMENTATION ADDED.


CORAL                  *CALCAREOUS SKELETON OF THE CORAL POLYP. POLISHED AND CARVED IT WAS PRIZED
                               HIGHLY FOR VICTORIAN JEWELRY. INDUSTRY CENTERED MOSTLY IN ITALY. MOST JEWELRY
                               CORAL COMES FROM THERE. FAVORITE COLORS WERE SALMON RED, PALE PINK (ANGEL SKIN)
                               CORAL WAS CARVED INTO CAMEOS, FLOWERS AND FRUITS AND BEADS OF ALL SHAPE.
                               FACETED CORAL BEADS USUALY DATE FROM THE EARLIER PART OF THE CENTURY. CORAL IS
                               SOFT AND   CAN EASILY BE   SCRATCHED WITH A KNIFE BLADE. WHEN A BIT OF WEAK ACID (LIKE
                               LEMON JUICE) IS DROPPED ON CORAL IT   EFFERVESES. THIS WILL NOT HAPPEN ON PLASTIC OR
                               GLASS IMITATIONS. CORAL WAS OFTEN WORN BY  VICTORIAN CHILDREN BECAUSE IT WAS
                               BELIEVED TO GUARD THEM FROM ALL MANNER OF DISEASES AND   DISASTERS. IT WAS ALSO
                               BELIEVED THAT CORAL DEEPENED AND PALED WITH ITS WEARER'S MENSTREL CYCLE
                               ASTROLOGICALLY CORAL IS UNDER THE SIGN OF PISCES AND THE HOUSE OF BALANCE
                               - LIBRA.  IT HAS BEEN VALUED THROUGH THE AGES MEDICINALLY FOR PROTECTION.  CHINESE
                               THOUGHT CORAL REPRESENTED A TREE CALLED THE "T'IEB SBU" GROWING ON THE OCEAN
                                FLOOR AND FLOWERING ONLY ONCE A CENTURY. THE TREE SYMBOLIZED LONGEVITY.  THE
                                ROMANS AS DID THE VICTORIANS, USED CORAL FOR THEIR CHILDREN TO PROTECT
                                THEM. SOME CULTURES EVEN POWDERED CORAL AND INGESTED IT AS A  CURE. EVEN EARLY
                                 IN  THE 19TH CENTURY, NAVAJO INDIANS COUNT CORAL AS ONE OF THE 18 SACRED OBJECTS
                                 AND  INCLUDE IT IN JEWELRY AND OTHER  ORNAMENTATION IN BASKETS. ETC.  IT IS ALSO
                                 THOUGHT BY   DANCERS, EVEN OUR BALLET, AS A GOOD LUCK CHARM.


CORAL, FREEFORM         *CORAL OF A LIGHT TO DARK RED COLOR.

CORAL, OXBLOOD         *MOST VALUED RED CORAL AND OLDEST KNOWN CORAL USED FOR ORNAMENTATION.

CORAL, PINK                     *CORAL OF A LIGHT TO MEDIUM PINK

CORAL, SALMON             *CORAL OF A PEACHY/SALMON COLOR

CORAL, WHITE                 *CORAL OF WHITE OR NO COLOR

CORDAY  *PARIS, FRANCE/NY NY; C. 1920'S; "TOUJUORS MOI"

CORDELIERE (FRENCH)    *LONG BEADED GIRDLE SOMETIMES WORN KNOTTED IN FRONT WITH THE ENDS
                                        DANGLING. SOMETIMES   MADE WITH SILVER BEADS. MOST POPULAR DURING THE
                                        19TH   CENTURY.

CORK LACE         *ORIGINALLY IT WAS PRODUCED IN COUNTY CORK, IRELAND. TODAY IT IS A KIND OF GENERIC
                           TERM FOR ALL  IRISH LACE. USUALLY MADE FROM FINE LINEN OR MUSLIN.

CORNELIAN         *SAME AS CARNELIAN. VARIETY OF CHALCEDONY USUALLY FLESH RED. RED BROWN VARIETY OF
                            AGATE. A  FAVORITE FOR SIGNET RINGS AND BEADS.

CORNISH               *MISNOMER FOR ROCK CRYSTAL FOUND IN CORNWALL ENGLAND.
   DIAMOND



CORO, INC.           *JEWELRY DESIGNER/MFG., NEW YORK SINCE 1919. USED MANY TRADEMARKS. INCLUDING THE
                             "FLYING HORSE"  NAME CAME FROM DESIGNERS COHN & ROSENBERGER, INC. (CO FROM COHN
                              AND RO FROM ROSENBERGER)  MANY OF THEIR MANY MARKS INCLUDED THE WORD  "CORO"
                              THE MARK "CORO" WAS USED 1919-1979/"COROCRAFT" 1933-179/"VENDOME" 1944-1979.
                               FRANCOIS WAS A SHORT-LIVED LINE CREATED IN 1937 AND PIECES ARE BECOMMING VERY
                               COLLECTIBLE BECAUSE OF THE SHORT PERIOD OF TIME IT WAS MADE.
                               VERY COLLECTABLE ARE THE CORO "DUETTES", PAIR OF CLIPS WHICH COULD BE WORN ALSO
                               AS A BROOCH.  THEIR JEWELRY WAS QUALITY YET FINANCIALLY AVAILABLE TO THE AMERICAN
                               VAST MARKET.  THEIR SOMETIMES WHIMSICAL THEMED JEWELRY SUCH AS THE "JELLY BELLY"
                               LINE CONTINUES ITS POPULARITY WITH COLLECTORS. (ALSO SEE "VENDOME")

COROCRAFT        *MARK USED BY CORO

CORONADO          *  UNCAS MANUFACTURING CO., PROVIDENCE RI, BEGINNING `1955

CORONAL              *AN ARRANGEMENT OF FLOWERS OR JEWELS WORN AS A CROWN.  USUALLY WORN BY LADIES
                               OF "RANK". MANY  WERE MADE BY DOMENICO DELGHIRLANDAIO 1450-1517 FOR YOUNG AND
                               NEWLY WED LADIES OF   FLORENCE.

CORONATION RING        *FINGER RING USED IN CEREMONY OF CONSECRATION OF A MONARCH.

CORONET                *SMALL INFERIOR TYPE OF CROWN ESPECIALLY WORN BY PERSON OF HIGH RANK  BUT LOWER
                                THAN A   SOVEREIGN.

CORSAIR                    *AUTOMATIC GOLD CHAIN CO. PROVIDENCE RI LATER BECAME SPEIDEL CORP.

CORUNDUM               *FAMOUS GEMSTONE FAMILY AMONG ITS MEMBERS ARE SAPPHIRE AND RUBY. IT IS ONE   OF
                                  THE HARDEST  MINERALS (9) SECOND ONLY TO A DIAMOND.

COSTA RICAN JEWELRY    *PRE-COLUMBIAN JEWELRY MADE C. AD800-1500 IN THE DIQUIS AND LINEA VIAJA
                                          REGIONS OF WHAT IS  NOW COSTA RICA.

COSTE, ZOE           * FRENCH JEWELRY DESIGNER

COSTUMAKERS                  *  LIDZ BROTHERS, INC., NEW YORK, NY BEGINNING 158


COSTUME JEWELRY           *VARIOUS PIECES OF MODERATE PRICED TO INEXPENSIVE JEWELRY  USUALLY STRASS OR
                                          RHINESTONE  SET SOMETIMES IN STERLING SILVER.  MARCASITE,PASTE AND SYNTHETIC
                                          GEMSTONES WERE   ALSO USED SOME CEMETED  AND SOME HAND SET.

                                           THE TERM "COSTUME" JEWELRY WAS SAID TO BE COINED BY FLO ZIEGFIELD WHEN
                                           DETERMINING WHAT TO CALL THE JEWELRY DESIGNED BY HOBE' FOR THE ZIEGFIELD
                                           FOLLIES.


COTIERE (FRENCH)            *ELABORATE LONG CHAIN WITH PENDANT WORN BY LADIES OF THE FRENCH   COURT. MOST
                                           POPULAR DURING  THE RENAISSANCE.

COTILLION                          *E. COPLAN SONS, BALTIMORE, MD. ; CUFF LINKS, ETC. SINCE 1943

COTY                                 *PERFUMER, PARIS, FRANCE, NY NY; C. 1920'S; "AMBRE ANTIQUE", " EMERAUDE" "IMPREVU"
           COSMETICS MFG. AND ACCESSORY DESIGNER. 1920'S -PRESENT

COULTAS, WILHELMINA      *FOUNDED METALSMITH SHOP PRIMARY JEWELRY IN CHICAGO FROM 1910-23
                                          UNDETERMINED SHOPMARK.

COUNTERFEIT                    *ARTICLE MADE OR SOLD WITH INTENT TO DECEIVE THE PURCHASER WHO    BELIEVES THE
                                          ARTICLE TO BE  GENUINE.

COURT JESTER                  *USED BY CORO BEGINNING  IN 1955 FOR MISC. JEWELRY ITEMS.

COURREGES, ANDRE          *SPANISH BASQUE BORN OPENED HIS COURTURE HOUSE IN 1961 - DEBUTING THE MINI-SKIRTS
           AND GO-GO BOOTS ALREADY IN VOGUE. HE WAS POPULAR FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF THE
           "STOVE-PIPE" TROUSERS.

COURTLY                           *JEWELRY MARK USED BY LEO GLASS & COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK SINCE 1946

COVENTRY, SARAH            * JEWELRY ORIGINALLY SOLD AT HOME PARTIES 1950-60. DISCONTINUED IN 1984.
                                           THE COVENTRY NAME WAS SOLD IN 1984 TO A CANADIAN COMPANY WHERE IT
            WILL CONTINUE TO BE MADE USING THE COVENTRY LOGO.
                                           EVENTHOUGH SOME BEAUTIFUL PIECES WERE MADE, THIS JEWELRY HAS NOT YET
                                      BECOME  COLLECTIBLE.  THEIR DAY WILL COME!

COVER GIRL               *JEWELRY MARK USED BY LEFCOURTE COSMETICS CO., NEW YORK BEGINNING 1944

COVER GIRL               *JEWELRY MARK USED BY REVOC, INC., NEW YORK (MARK FEATURED FIGURE OF A GIRL)
                                  SINCE 1945

COWRIE SHELL          *USED IN THE MAKING OF BEADS, CURRENCY AND CAMEOS.

COUNTES "CIS"           *FRENCH JEWELRY DESIGNER
    ZOLOTOWSKA

COUTURIER, JEAN       * PERFUMER PARIS FRANCE, 1970'S; "CORIANDRE"


CRACKLED                  *HAVING APPEARANCE OF TINY CLOSELY PLACED CRACKS. USED IN JEWELRY, GLASS AND
    PORCELAIN.              SOMETIMES USED TO INDICATE AGE. *OR DELIBERATE FRACTURES DONE AS A DESIGN.

CRADLE CRAFT           *JEWELRY MFG. MARK USED BY VARGAS MFG. COMPANY, PROVIDENCE, RI BEGINNING 1946.

CRAFT                        *MARK USED BY THE CRAFT COMPANY, INDIANAPOLIS, INC. SINCE 1904 FOR JEWELRY ITEMS.

CRAFTMAID                *JEWELRY MARK USED BY CRAFTMAID MFG. IN BROOKLYN, NY SINCE 1945

CRANCH, WILHELM     *1861-1918 GERMAN PAINTER/JEWELER IN THE ART NOUVEAU STYLE. MARK WLC
  LUCAS VAN

CRAVAT PIN *TIE PIN

CRAVER, MARGARET *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST  BORN IN KANSAS, MO.

CREOLE EARRINGS     *CRESCENT-SHAPED EARRINGS WITH A WIDER BOTTOM THAN TOP.  THEY WERE VERY
                                    POPULAR AROUND  THE MIDDLE OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

CROCODILE GRIP         *HICKOK MANUFACTURING CO., ROCHESTER MARK USED FOR MENS JEWELRY SINCE 1946

CROIX A LA JEANETTE  *JEWELRY IN THE FORM OF A HEART WITH A CROSS SUSPENDED. CONSIDERED FRENCH
      PEASANT JEWELRY C. 1835.

CROIX DE SAINT LO     *FRENCH PEASANT JEWELRY IN FORM OF A CROSS COMPOSED OF 5 GEMSTONES  OR
                                               STRAUSS, ONE SET IN  THE CENTER AND ONE FORMING EACH OF THE FOUR  ARMS OF
                                                    THE CROSS, THE LOWEST BEING THE   LARGEST AND SOMETIMES IN PENDLOQUE  FORM.

CRONINGER, CARA LEE      *CONTEMPORARY STUDIO DESIGNER/ARTIST SPECIALIZING IN PLASTICS/ACRYLICS.


CROSS                       *AN ORNAMENTAL OR DEVOTIONAL ARTICLE OF JEWELRY IN THE FORM OF AN UPRIGHT   JOINED BY A
                                   HORIZONTAL  ARM OR TRAVERSED ARM AS IN A LATIN CROSS.  MANY DIFFERENT FORMS AND
                                   MATERIALS.

                                 *TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS SYMBOL. IN CHRISTIANITY IT REPRESENTED THE CRUCIFIXION AND
                                  SYMBOLIZES SALVATION.
                                      THE LATIN CROSS IS USED AND H AS  A LONGER UPRIGHT THAN CROSSBAR.
                                      THE GREEK CROSS HAS ARMS OF EQUAL LENGTH
                                      THE EGYPTIAN CROSS OR "TAU" HAS THE SHAPE OF A "T".  WHEN THE "T" IS USED WITH A CIRCLE IT
                                            REPRESENTS ETERNAL PRESERVATION OF THE WORLD.
                                     THE ST. ANDREWS CROSS IS IN THE SHAPE OF AN "X".

                                CROSSES THROUGH THE AGES HAVE BEEN MADE AS SIMPLE AS WOOD OR METAL OR AS
                                ELABORATE AS GOLD ENCRUSTED, ENAMELD AND WITH GEMS.


CROSSOVER RING         *FINGER RING WITH THE SHANK EXCEEDING A FULL CIRCLE AND WRAPPED AROUND THE
                                      FINGER SO THAT THE TWO TERMINALS OVERLAP AND LIE BESIDE  EACH OTHER.
       CAN ALSO BE IN THE FORM OF A BRACELET.

CROWN                         *IN JEWELRY THE TOP PART OF A CUT GEMSTONE OR THE PORTION ABOVE THE  GIRDLE.  ALSO THE
                                      NAME FOR  THE HEADPIECE OF A KING OR QUEEN USUALLY ELABORATELY BEJEWELED.

CROWN PRINCE             *JEWELRY MARK USED BY WEINREICH BROS. CO., NEW YORK FOR THEIR PEARL JEWELRY
                                      BEGINNING 1949.

CRUSADER                    *JEWELRY MARK SUED BY J.J.WHITE MFG. CO., RI FOR PLATED ITEMS SINCE 1923.


CRYSTAL     *SIMPLY - QUARTZ, OR SILICON DIOXIDE.  WE THINK OF IT TO BE CLEAR AND  THE GREEKS BELIEVED IT TO BE  CLEAR WATER WHICH HAD SOLIDIFIED. QUARTZ, HOWEVER, COMES IN MANY COLORS  AND IS CALLED BY  MANY OTHER NAMES.  IT IS POPULAR FOR JEWELRY AND IS THE  BIRTHSTONE FOR THE  MONTH OF APRIL.  IN  SCOTLAND CRYSTAL WAS CALLED "STONE OF VICTORY" AND WOULD USE THE WATER WASHING OVER  CRYSTAL TO CURE SICKNESS.
 MEXICAN INDIAN TRIBES BELIEVED SOULS OF THE DEAD WERE CONTAINED  IN CRYSTAL AND
IN  AUSTRAILA IT WAS USED TO BRING RAIN DURING DROUGHT.


CRYSTAL PALACE         *OFTEN REFERRED TO WHEN READING ABOUT JEWELRY DESIGNS. IT WAS A GIANT  GREENHOUSE LIKE
                                               STRUCTURE BUILT IN LONDON BY JOSEPH PAXTON FOR THE GREAT EXHIBITION AT HYDE PARK IN 1851.
                                          MANY INNOVATIVE DESIGNS IN JEWELRY AND OTHER ORNAMENTATION WERE INTRODUCED BY DESIGNERS
                                          OF THE PERIOD. AF TER THE EXHIBITION IT WAS A TOURIST ATTRACTION UNTIL IT BURNED DOWN IN 1936.
                                 THE IMAGE OF THE CRYSTAL PALACE IS OFTEN USED IN ORNAMENTATION.

CRYSTALETTE           *JEWELRY MARK BUSED BY JOSEPH H. MEYER BROS., BROOKLYN BEGINNING C. 1957

CRYSTALS                 *ROCK CRYSTAL BEADS OR CLEAR GLASS BEADS FACETED TO RESEMBLE ROCK  CRYSTAL;
                                   CRYSTALS ARE ALSO THE ORDERLY FORM SOME MINERALS TAKE  WHEN FORMED IN
                                   NATURE.


CUBIC ZIRCONIA          *SYNTHETIC GEMSTONE THAT IS A SIMULANT FOR A DIAMOND. THEY HAVE BEEN  PRODUCED
                                    SINCE 1977.

CUFF BRACELET         *TYPE OF RIGID BRACELET MADE IN THE FORM OF A WIDE CYLINDRICAL BAND   USUALLY
                                   TAPERING IN ONE   DIRECTION AND HAVING AN OPENING.  POPULAR SINCE ANCIENT TIMES.
                                   FRENCH TERM IS MANCHETTE.


CUFF LINK                   *DEVICE USED TO JOIN TEMPORARILY THE TWO ENDS OF THE CUFF AROUND THE   WEARER'S
                                    WRIST WITHOUT  OVERLAPPING THE CUFF ENDS. SOMETIMES CALLED  SLEEVE BUTTON OR
                                    SLEEVE FASTENERS. POPULAR MANUFACTURERS INCLUDE SWANK, HICKOK, ANSON,
                                    SPIEDEL, ZENTALL, KREMENTZ..  FIGURAL CUFF LINKS SEEM TO BE MOST COLLECTIBLE IN
                                    THE MODERN CATEGORY.  THE SNAP APARTS WITH THEIR CELLULOID  INSERTS ARE ALSO
                                    COLLECTIBLE BUT ARE DIFFICULT TO FIND IN SETS. CONTACT:  NATIONAL CUFF LINK
                                    SOCIETY, PO BOX 346, PROSPECT HEIGHTS, IL 60070

CUFF PACT            *JEWLELRY MARK USED BY S. PACKALES & CO., NEW YORK FOR UNUSUAL ITEMS SINCE 1957

CUIVRE                   *FRENCH FOR COPPER

CUIVRE DORE'      *FRENCH FOR GUILDED COPPER

CUIVRE-JAUNE     *FRENCH FOR BRASS

CULET                  *SMALL FACET CUT ON THE BASE OF SOME BRILLIANT-CUT OR OLD MINE-CUT DIAMONDS.


 CULTURED           *FORMED IN THE OYSTER BUT INDUCED BY MAN. A SMALL GRAIN OR FOREIGN SUBSTANCE
     PEARLS            IS INSERTED INTO THE OYSTER. NACRE, AN IRIDESCENT SHELL-LIKE SUB-STANCE FORMS
                             AROUND THE GRAIN TO  PROTECT THE OYSTER; INSTEAD IT IS HIS DOWNFALLL - IN A FEW
                             YEARS PEOPLE WILL COME LOOKING FOR THE  PEARL AND USUALY   THEY FIND IT.  THIS
                             PROCESS WAS ORIGINATED AND PATENTED BY A JAPANESE NOODLE  PEDDLER, KOKICHI
                             MIKIMOTO IN 1896 AND MADE HIM A BILLIONAIRE. ALL PEARLS,  CULTURED AND ORIENTAL
                             (NATURAL) WILL FLUORESCE UNDER BLACK LIGHT (AS WILL SOME FAKE PEARLS MADE WITH
                             FISH SCALES) SO THIS IS  NO ACTUAL TEST EITHER.  STILL FOR ALL THE DIFFICULTY IN
                             DISTINGUISHING CULTURED FROM NATURAL PEARLS THE NATURAL ONES ARE WORTH MANY
                             TIMES THE PRICE OF CULTURED ONES.


CUPELLIFORM       *BROOCH SHAPED LIKE A SAUCER OR SHALLOW CUPEL OR CUP.

CUPID                   *USED IN ORNAMENTATION - SEE CHERUB

CUPID                   *JEWELRY MARK USED BY BARODA PEARL CO., INC. NEW YORK FOR THEIR PEARL JEWELRY
                             C. 1923

CURB CHAIN         *REFERS TO CHAIN OF TWISTED OVAL LINKS THAT LIE FLAT.

CURRENCY JEWELRY   *JEWELRY USED AS SPECIAL PURPOSE CURRENCY THAN PRIMARILY FOR ORNAMENTAL WEAR.

CURTIS  CREATION       *JEWELRY MARK USED BY THE CURTMAN COMPANY, INC. PROVIDENCE RI  BEGINNING 1941

CURTIS, DE    *JEWELRY MARK OF CURTIS JEWELRY MFG. CO. PROVIDENCE RI SINCE 1951

CURTIS, HELENE         * PERFUMER - CHICAGO, ILL; C.1950; "CABANA", "PINK LADY", "TWEEDIE"

CURVETTE                   *TYPE OF CAMEO CARVED WHERE THE BACKGROUND OF THE DESIGN IS CONCAVE   AND
                                   THE EDGE OR RIM OF THE STONE IS THE SAME LEVEL AS THE HIGHEST  PART OF THE
                                    CENTRAL DESIGN.

CURVO GRAM              *MARK USED BY ANDERSON TOOL & DIE WORKS, INC., PROVIDENCE RI FOR THEIR STAMPINGS

CUSHION CUT              *BRILLIANT CUT DIAMOND OR OTHER GEM THAT IS SQUARE SHAPED WITH ROUNDED CORNERS.

CUSPED                       *COMES TO A POINT

CUT STEEL                    *SMALL BEADS OF FACETED STEEL ONCE USED TO IMMITATE MARCASITE.
                                      POPULAR FROM AROUND 1760 UNTIL LATE 19TH CENTURY.

CUT STEEL                    *IN JEWELRY - SET WITH CUT STEEL FACETED "GEMS" POPULAR DURING THE 18TH
                                      CENTURY AS A SUBSTITUTE  FOR DIAMONDS AND BEAUTIFULLY MADE. EACH "GEL" WAS
                                      CAREFULLY  CUT AND STUDDED BY HAND. THIS JEWELRY DECLINED IN THE 19TH CENTURY
                                      AND ITS HIGH STANDARD OF WORKMANSHIP GAVE WAY TO   CHEAPER MACHINE MADE
                                      JEWELRY.  NOW A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE HUMBLE MARCASITE. EARLY CUT STEEL IS
                                      BEAUTIFUL, HIGHLY COLLECTIBLE AND VERY WEARABLE.

CUTTING                        *PROCESS AND ART OF SHAPING A PRECIOUS STONE.

CUZNER, BERNARD      *ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT SILVERSMITH AND JEWELER (1877-1956) INFLUENCED BY ARTHUR
       GASKIN. CUZNER DID JEWELRY DESIGNS FOR LIBERTY & CO. MARK "BC"


CW      *TRADEMARK USED BY CAROL WEINBERG, CONTEMPORARY JEWELRY DESIGNER. SEE  WEINBERG.



CYMA CURVE                  *S SHAPED CURVE.

CYMRIC                           *TRADE NAME FOR LIBERTY & CO.IN LONDON ADOPTED IN 1899 FOR JEWELRY  AND SILVER
                                        ARTICLES SOME DESIGNED BY LEADING ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT    DESIGNERS AND
                                        MANY ART NOUVEAU PIECES.

CYPRIOTE JEWELRY         *ARTICLES PRODUCED ON THE ISLAND OF CYPRESS FROM C.2000 BC ONWARDS.

CZARINA        *JEWELRY TRADEMARK USED BY CORO, NEW YORK, FROM 1950


CZESCHKA, CARL OTTO   *JEWELRY DESIGNER/ARTIST BORN 1878 (DIED 1960) IN KUNSTGEWERBESCHULE, VIENNA.